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Dynamic Stability Factors

Glenohumeral stability is mainly achieved through dynamic factors. Active contraction of the rotator cuff contributes to joint stabilization by coordinated muscular activity and by secondary tightening of the ligamentous constraints. This effect works in combination with the concavity-compression mechanism, in which muscle contraction causes compression of nearly congruent articular surfaces into one another.

The rotator […]

Biomechanics of Shoulder Stability-Static Stability Factor

The glenohumeral joint is inherently unstable, with the large humeral head articulating with the small and shallow glenoid. Static stability is provided by the orientation of the articular surfaces, the articular conformity of humerus and the glenoid, the glenoid labrum, the negative intra-articular pressure, the adhesion-cohesion of synovial joint fluid, and the glenohumeral joint capsule […]

Rotator Cuff Muscles

The RTC is composed of the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus, the subscapularis, and the teres minor muscles. The tendinous portion of the supraspinatus interdigitates with the subscapularis and the infraspinatus to form a common, continuous insertion on the humeral head, enveloping approximately 75% of the GH articulation and with a mean area of insertion on the […]

Long Head of the Biceps

The long head of the biceps tendon has a variable origin, with 30% to 40% originating at the supraglenoid tubercle, 45% to 60% directly from the labrum, and 25% to 30% from both. It travels obliquely within the shoulder joint, then turns sharply to exit inferiorly beneath the transverse humeral ligament along the bicipital groove. […]

Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

SYMPTOMS

There is acute onset of localised swelling and pain over the anterior part of the shoulder with deformation, after an excessive external rotation and abduction trauma. This is the most common type of dislocation in sports (85-90 per cent). Movements of the arm cause pain and the patient will protect the arm in […]

Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Basics Description Shoulder pain with overhead activities is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Impingement syndrome: Inflammatory condition of the soft tissues of the subacromial space Most common cause of presentation for shoulder complaints to a physician’s office (>50% of all shoulder complaints) Represents a continuum, progressing from acute bursitis, to chronic bursitis, to partial-thickness tears […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]

A Patient’s Guide to Biceps Tendonitis

Introduction

Biceps tendonitis, also called bicipital tendonitis, is inflammation in the main tendon that attaches the top of the biceps muscle to the shoulder. The most common cause is overuse from certain types of work or sports activities. Biceps tendonitis may develop gradually from the effects of wear and tear, or it can happen suddenly […]