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Tibial Spine Avulsion Fracture


This injury is caused by a sprain and prevents continuation of sport in a young growing athlete usually below or just above 15 years of age. The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the bone, and pain. This is an injury that is not uncommon in contact sports such […]

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (PCL)


Immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the knee after a sudden hyper-flexion or hyperextension sprain or direct tackle. It is common in contact sports such as football and rugby and other high-intensity sports.


The typical athlete suffers a hyperextension or valgus rotation sprain during sport or after a direct impact to the […]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL)


The symptoms are pain and immediate haemarthrosis, caused by bleeding from the ruptured ligament. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high intensity sports such as downhill skiing. There is often a ‘pop’ sound from the knee and an inability to continue.


The typical athlete suffers […]



Basics Description Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. Characteristics: Patient height <4.5 feet at maturity The greatest shortening occurs in the proximal humerus and femur . Hypoplasia of the midface and frontal bossing may be present. Arthritis is rarely seen, but spinal stenosis is the most serious possible complication. Affects the skeletal […]