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Dislocation of PIP Joint

Dislocation of the PIP joint is a common injury which often affects team handball, basketball and volleyball players, and cricketers. In 80% of cases it is the little finger that is damaged. The most common mechanism of injury is axial loading and hyperextension of the joint causing dorsal dislocation (dislocation upwards and backwards). The dorsal […]

Types of Elbow Injury

Elbow injuries in adults

Elbow injuries can be grouped into those occurring in medial, lateral, posterior or anterior areas.

Medial injuries

Medial injuries include medial epicondylitis, injury to the common flexors (myositis or acute rupture), compression of the hypertrophied pronator teres by the overlying fascia, chronic elongation and/or rupture of the medial collateral ligament with […]

Throwing

Throwing injuries are of increasing importance in both professional and amateur sports. They affect adults and children alike. Sports prone to throwing injuries include baseball, American football, tennis and other racket sports, javelin throwing, team handball, cricket, and sports with other overhead motions such as swimming and volleyball.

Throwing mechanism

The basic principle in throwing […]

Tibial Spine Avulsion Fracture

SYMPTOMS

This injury is caused by a sprain and prevents continuation of sport in a young growing athlete usually below or just above 15 years of age. The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the bone, and pain. This is an injury that is not uncommon in contact sports such […]

Posterior Medial Corner Injuries

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are acute posterior and medial knee pain and haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the ruptured posterior medial capsule. Since the capsule ruptures, the extent of bleeding is often underestimated. This injury is fairly uncommon but occurs in contact sports such as football, rugby and others.

AETIOLOGY

The typical […]

Posterior Lateral Corner Injuries

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the posterior lateral corner of the knee. This injury is common in contact sports such as football and rugby. The diagnosis is often missed.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers a hyperextension and varus rotation sprain during sport. The posterior lateral corner structures involve the […]

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (PCL)

SYMPTOMS

Immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the knee after a sudden hyper-flexion or hyperextension sprain or direct tackle. It is common in contact sports such as football and rugby and other high-intensity sports.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers a hyperextension or valgus rotation sprain during sport or after a direct impact to the […]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are pain and immediate haemarthrosis, caused by bleeding from the ruptured ligament. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high intensity sports such as downhill skiing. There is often a ‘pop’ sound from the knee and an inability to continue.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers […]

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Basics Description Injury to the OSD, the primary stabilizer to posterior translation of the tibia on the femur at the knee Classification (see Posterior drawer test under Physical Exam): Grade 1: Tibial plateau is anterior to the femoral condyles. Grade 2: Tibial plateau is level with the femoral condyles. Grade 3: Tibial plateau is […]

Achondroplasia

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Basics Description Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. Characteristics: Patient height <4.5 feet at maturity The greatest shortening occurs in the proximal humerus and femur . Hypoplasia of the midface and frontal bossing may be present. Arthritis is rarely seen, but spinal stenosis is the most serious possible complication. Affects the skeletal […]