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Glenohumeral arthrosis has been a well-described complication of various surgical procedures to correct shoulder instability. Over-tightening of the anterior structures, can result in stiffness, and drive the humeral head posteriorly, creating shear on the cartilage and early arthrosis.

Some patients paradoxically may have instability and stiffness. They feel unstable because of excessive laxity in […]

Rotator Interval Closure

If after repair of the labrum and IGHL and MGHLs, the shoulder shows persistent inferior or inferoposterior translation, rotator interval closure is performed. The authors close the rotator interval in all patients with MDI and posterior instability.

The arthroscope is inserted posteriorly to visualize the rotator interval. The arm should be placed in external rotation […]

Shoulder Labral Tears and Instability

Key Points

The goal of therapeutic approaches to glenohumeral joint instability is the restoration of anatomy. The glenohumeral joint is inherently unstable, with the large humeral head articulating with the small and shallow glenoid. The labrum acts as the anchor point for the capsuloligamentous structures, increases the depth of the glenoid socket, and facilitates the […]

Long Head of the Biceps

The long head of the biceps tendon has a variable origin, with 30% to 40% originating at the supraglenoid tubercle, 45% to 60% directly from the labrum, and 25% to 30% from both. It travels obliquely within the shoulder joint, then turns sharply to exit inferiorly beneath the transverse humeral ligament along the bicipital groove. […]