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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Internal Oblique

The internal oblique is the largest muscle of the abdominal wall . The internal oblique forms the middle layer of the abdominal wall between the TrA and the external oblique. It originates from the “lateral two-thirds of the inguinal ligament, anterior two-thirds of the iliac crest, and the lateral raphe of the thoracolumbar fascia in […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-External Oblique

The external oblique originates from the inferior border and outer surfaces of the lower eight ribs. It interdigitates with the serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi, with upper, middle, and lower attachments. The upper and middle fibers attach into the abdominal aponeurosis.

The posterior attachments descend to insert on the anterior half of the iliac crest. […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Transversus Abdominis

The TrA is the deepest muscle of the abdominal muscle complex, with the internal and external oblique being more ventral and the rectus abdominis in the center with a fascial envelope encased with a bilaminar aponeurosis. The TrA is the deepest muscle of the abdominal muscle complex, with the internal and external oblique being more […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Multifidus

The multifidus is the most medial and largest of the paraspinal muscles. It has an origin and insertion of vertebra to vertebra attachments within the lumbar spine and between the lumbar and sacral vertebrae .

The multifidus is composed of repeating fascicles, which originate from the laminae and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae and […]

Functional Spinal Rehabilitation

Key Points

Low back pain affects up to 80% of the population at least once in their lifetime. The term core stabilization is used to describe the management of low back pain through training of the deep stabilizing muscles of the trunk to protect the spine and to allow improved motor control of the spine. […]

Rupture of the Rectus Femoris Muscle


There is an acute onset of sharp tearing pain in the proximal anterior thigh or towards the anterior iliac crest during activity. This injury often occurs during intense activity in sports like tennis, squash or other sprinting and jumping sports.


This is usually a partial rupture of the insertion or proximal […]