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Nerve Injuries/Entrapment

Nerve injuries can occur with both arthroscopic and open shoulder procedures. The axillary nerve courses from anterior to posterior from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, 3 to 5 mm medial to musculotendinous junction of the inferior lateral border of the subscapularis muscle. It lies in contact with the GH joint capsule until it […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-External Oblique

The external oblique originates from the inferior border and outer surfaces of the lower eight ribs. It interdigitates with the serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi, with upper, middle, and lower attachments. The upper and middle fibers attach into the abdominal aponeurosis.

The posterior attachments descend to insert on the anterior half of the iliac crest. […]


The medial malleolus, the sustentaculum tali, the tuberosity of the scaphoid and the base of the first metatarsal bone constitute the important bony landmarks at the medial aspect of the ankle and foot. The medial malleolus is felt with ease. The sustentaculum tali is found about 2 em below the tip of the medial malleolus. […]

Palpation of soft tissue

The Achilles tendon is easily visible and palpable.1t inserts at the upper and posterior border of the caleaneus. The plantar aspect of the calcaneus is covered by a soft heel pad. The tip of the lateral malleolus is level with the lateral jOint line of the talocaleanean joint. Its inferior border extends about 1 em […]


Radius and ulna are easily palpable. The styloid process of the radills descends a bit further distally than the styloid process of the ulna. The distal radioulnar joint can be recognized by grasping the distal end of the radius with one hand and the distal end of the ulna with the other, and by moving […]

MEDIAL-Palpation of soft tissue

Keep the subject’s elbow almost completely extended and in full supination. Move the finger from the medial aspect of the medial epicondyle about 1-1.5 cm towards the anterior aspect. Palpate for a tough round structure. This is the common tendon of the flexors.0.5 em more distally, just below the inferior border of the epicondyle and […]