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Basic Science-Anatomy and Biology

The rotator cuff consists of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles, all of which arise from the scapula and insert into the proximal humerus. The subscapularis muscle is innervated by the upper and lower scapular nerves, and arises from the anterior surface of the scapula, inserting into the lesser tuberosity.

The nerve supply […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The physical examination of athletes with axillary nerve injury should include evaluation for range of motion (passive and active) as well as strength (abduction, forward elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation). Patients with a chronic history of the problem may demonstrate atrophy or asymmetry of the deltoid muscle mass.

A neurovascular examination should be performed […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The physical examination findings of the athlete depend on the degree of nerve dysfunction and the chronicity of the injury. Athletes presenting early in the process often have an examination that is nonfocal and nonspecific. Patients with chronic problems will demonstrate wasting or atrophy of the involved muscles.

If the nerve is injured or entrapped […]

Anatomy

The suprascapular nerve originates from the fifth and sixth anterior cervical roots, which are part of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. The suprascapular nerve typically is a motor nerve with no cutaneous sensory capabilities. It travels laterally, across the posterior cervical triangle, deep to the posterior belly of the omohyoid muscle and the […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Palpation of the deltoid muscle The deltoid muscle is easy to recognize. It forms the most important muscular mass of the shoulder and is responsible for its round look.The anterior portion overlies the anterior border of the acromion and the lesser tuberosity. The middle portion lies over the lateral border of the acramion and the […]