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Prescription Sports


Running is one of the most popular sports in the world. This not only covers marathons and track and field running – running is also part of the training in virtually all other sports, including soccer, rugby, handball and triathlon. Running is a very efficient method for maintaining or improving […]

Wrist Sprain


Description A wrist sprain is an injury to the bones and ligaments of the wrist that results in pain from an incomplete ligament tear. No associated long-term disability Because many serious injuries are easily confused with wrist sprains, the patient with substantial swelling or persistent pain should be suspected of having a more serious […]

Wrist Pain


Description Wrist pain, a common symptom, may be caused by different conditions, including trauma, overuse, and infection. It is important to obtain a detailed history to make the correct diagnosis and to provide appropriate treatment. The history should include onset, duration, frequency, and location of the pain. Information regarding swelling, erythema, abnormal clicks, aggravating […]

Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear


Description The TFCC: A group of ligaments and cartilaginous structures that stabilize the distal radioulnar joint during pronation and supination of the forearm Extends from the ulnar styloid to the sigmoid notch of the distal radius Central portion: More cartilaginous than its periphery Acts as a meniscal homolog, similar to the menisci of the […]

Meniscus Tear

Basics Description A meniscus tear is an acute or degenerative injury to the meniscal fibrocartilage of the knee. Classification: Acute tear: Longitudinal (50-90%) Radial (6%) Flap (4%) Degenerative tear: Mostly horizontal cleavage or complex tears Epidemiology Acute tears occur mainly in adolescents and young adults, and degenerative tears predominate in the 40-60-year-old population. Degenerative […]

Jumper’s Knee (Patellar Tendinopathy)

Basics Description Patellar tendinopathy, also known as Jumper’s knee, is an overuse injury of the patellar tendon. Children develop a similar condition known as OSD. General Prevention Avoidance of repetitive jumping exercises without proper quad strengthening Epidemiology Equally common among males and females Incidence Overall incidence in the community is unknown, but it is […]

Humeral Shaft Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the diaphysis (shaft) of the humerus Occur at all ages Classification: AO classification method Anatomic location: Proximal 1/3 of the shaft Medial 1/3 of the shaft Distal 1/3 of the shaft Fracture characteristics: Fracture pattern (transverse versus oblique versus comminuted) Fractures may be open or closed. Pathologic (secondary to underlying […]

Hip Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocations and fracture-dislocations of the hip are orthopaedic emergencies. Serious, high-energy injuries in which the femoral head becomes completely dislodged from the acetabulum A thorough examination must be performed to assess for other possible injuries. Up to 50% of patients suffer other fractures at the time of injury. Associated acetabular or femoral […]

Heterotopic Ossification

Basics Description Pathologic bone formation as a consequence of direct trauma or central nervous system injuries Bone formed in heterotopic locations such as muscle, subcutaneous tissues, or nerves Most commonly occurs at the hip, elbow, and shoulder joints. Epidemiology Less common in children than in adults, and more common in males than in females […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]