Featured on Channel NewsAsia

Forearm Fractures in Singapore

forearm fracture

Orthopaedic surgeons refer to fractures of the forearm as those fractures that occur in the middle section (shaft) of the forearm bones. Fractures that involve the upper end of the forearm are discussed under elbow fractures. Fractures that involve the lower end are discussed under wrist fractures. The forearm has a complex anatomy to serve […]

Fracture of the Hook of the Hamate

The hook of the hamate bone projects anteriorly on the lateral side of the palm. A compression fracture of this bone is a rare injury, but it may occur in racket sports, baseball, ice hockey, and cycling if the handle of the racket, bat, club, stick or handlebar is compressed on to the hook of […]

Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]

Stress Fracture

Basics Description A stress (microscopic) fracture occurs when: Repetitive stresses are applied to a bone faster than it is able to remodel to withstand this challenge. As the stressing force continues, the bone gradually fatigues and eventually breaks. Remodeling occurs in response to the stress but does not happen quickly enough to prevent the […]


Basics Description Spondylolisthesis is an abnormal AP translation of 2 vertebral bodies relative to each other. This translation is secondary to a defect in the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) or the posterior ligamentous-bony restraints. Spondylolisthesis is classified by type (Table 1) and by the severity of the slip (Table 2). General Prevention No preventive measures […]

Sacral Insufficiency Fracture

Basics Description Sacral Insufficiency fractures occur in the sacral ala between the SI joints and the neural foramina (Denis Zone 1). The fracture pattern adopts a characteristic H-shape, which is pathonemonic of the condition. It is postulated that the vertical limbs of the H occur 1st, followed by the transverse fracture line. In ~50% […]

Radial Head Fracture

Basics Description Radial head fractures: Occur in the proximal 2-3 cm of the radius Are intra-articular fractures (The radial head articulates with capitellum.) Classification : Type 1: Nondisplaced fractures Type 2: Partial head fractures Type 3: Complete head fractures Radial head fractures often are associated with other injuries to the elbow or the forearm. […]

Phalanx Fracture

Basics Description A phalanx fracture is a break in 1 or more phalanges in the fingers. Finger fractures are classified by: Which phalanx is involved Location within the phalanx Pattern Complexity Open or closed Stable or unstable to motion Epidemiology Fractures of the metacarpals and the phalanges are common. Occur among all ages Common […]

Paget Disease

Basics Description First described by Sir James Paget in 1877 , Paget disease (osteitis deformans) is a bone disorder commonly seen in the geriatric population. As implied by the name osteitis deformans, the involved bone may be severely deformed and enlarged, features that suggest an inflammatory origin. A chronic and slowly progressive disease of […]

Nonunion of Fractures

Basics Description Presence of a postfracture defect in a long bone beyond a reasonable expected healing date, or if no radiographic progression of healing is noted If internal fixation is used to stabilize a fracture, a race exists between fracture healing and hardware failure. Children, because of their active healing potential, rarely develop a […]