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Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Treatment

Partial thickness rotator cuff tears can result from intrinsic cuff degeneration and tendinopathy absent an injury or impingement. The lack of uniformity of collagen bundles and the paucity of vascular supply contributes to weakness, especially along the articular aspect of the rotator cuff. These degenerative tears often exit the articular surface and can be well […]

Physical Findings

A systematic evaluation includes observation for abnormal motion patterns and atrophy, palpation to localize painful areas, assessment of both active and passive range of motion, measurement of strength of the rotator cuff, deltoid and scapular stabilizer muscles, neurovascular examination, and finally provocative testing maneuvers for instability. It is important to examine the opposite shoulder for […]

Resisted internal rotation

Positioning.

The subject stands with the upper arm against the body and the elbow flexed to a right angle. The forearm is held in the sagittal plane, so keeping the shoulder in a neutral position. The examiner stands level with the subject’s arm. He places one hand on the opposite shoulder and the other hand […]

Injury of the Subscapularis Tendon

Injury of the subscapularis tendon

The subscapularis muscle (which originates on the inner surface of the scapula, runs anterior to the shoulder joint, and is inserted high into the anterior aspect of the head of the humerus) is the most important internal rotator of the upper arm. Its tendon can be affected by partial or […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]