Specialists

Featured on Channel NewsAsia

Popliteal Cyst in the Adult

Basics Description Popliteal cyst in an adult is a distended cyst in the posterior fossa of the knee that often is connected directly to the joint space. Synonym: Baker cyst Epidemiology Bimodal distribution: 1 subset in children, 1 in adults >55 years old: In adults, cysts usually are the result of intra-articular abnormalities. In […]

Patellar Dislocation

Basics Description Patellar dislocation usually refers to lateral displacement of the patella out of its normal alignment in the trochlear groove of the femur. The patella is held stable by ligamentous forces, muscular forces, and bony anatomy. Disruption of any of these 3 components can lead to recurrent patellar instability. Classification: Subluxation: Patella sits […]

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

Basics Description A pathologic joint entity of localized bone necrosis with overlying cartilage injury Osteochondritis dissecans primarily affects the knee, but it is also seen in the hip (in late Legg-Calve-Perthes disease), elbow, and ankle. Osteochondritis dissecans occurs primarily in the 2nd decade of life, but it also is seen in children and older […]

Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

Basics Description An MCL injury is a sprain of the MCL, which is the primary restraint to valgus stress on the knee. It occurs mainly in athletic teenagers and young adults, and equally among males and females. Classification: Grade I (mild): Microscopic sprain with intact fibers Grade II (moderate): Partial tear Grade III (severe): […]

Knee Pain

Basics Description Knee pain has many causes, including pathologic processes in the knee and disorders in distant locations with referral to the knee area. Diffuse or located in a specific region A characteristic history and physical examination frequently narrow the diagnosis. Classification: Traumatic Acquired Risk Factors Athletic activity Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Etiology Traumatic injury […]

Knee Examination in the Child

Basics Description It is important, during a knee examination, to keep in mind the child’s age and to understand the age-specific pediatric knee disorders. Congenital hyperextension or dislocation of the knee: Varies from simple hyperextension to anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur Hyperextended knee presents at birth. A hyperextensible knee resolves spontaneously, […]

Knee Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy of the knee consists of compartments, bones, menisci, ligaments, muscles, and nerves. 3 compartments: Medial, lateral, and patellofemoral Bones: Patella: Serves as fulcrum to aid knee extension Medial and lateral menisci: Fibrocartilaginous structures in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments Aid in joint lubrication and nutrition and in load distribution across articular […]