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Meniscal Function

While the term “shock absorber” has often been used to describe the meniscus, the menisci actually serve many functions in the human knee. Additional functions are theorized to be load bearing, lubrication, and proprioception. The meniscal function of load bearing may be clinically inferred by the degenerative changes that accompany meniscectomy.

Fairbank described radiographic changes […]

Barlow’s test


The test is used for early detection of congenital dislocation of the hip in babies. During the test the hip is first subluxated and then replaced.


The baby lies on its back, hips flexed to 900 and the knees completely flexed. The examiner grasps the leg in such a way that the […]

SPECIFIC TESTS-Bilateral passive medial rotation in prone position


This test is very useful in detecting minor limitations.Since both hips are examined together, even the slightest limitation of medial rotation or a divergence in the end-feel can be detected.


The subject lies in the prone position with the knees together and flexed to 90°. The examiner stands at the foot-end of […]

Resisted medial rotation


The subject lies in the prone position with the hips slightly abducted and the knees flexed to 90°. The examiner sits at the foot·end of the couch, just distal to the knees, and places both hands against the outer malleoli.


Ask the subject to push the legs in an outward direction, and […]

Septic Bursitis

Septic bursitis is caused by bacteria entering a bursa either from the bloodstream or from the environment through damaged skin, for example

Symptoms and diagnosis

where abrasions or blisters have occurred. Superficial bursae, around the elbows and knees, are most frequently affected; athletes and soccer players who are likely to suffer dirty abrasions are most […]



Basics Description Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. Characteristics: Patient height <4.5 feet at maturity The greatest shortening occurs in the proximal humerus and femur . Hypoplasia of the midface and frontal bossing may be present. Arthritis is rarely seen, but spinal stenosis is the most serious possible complication. Affects the skeletal […]

A Patient’s Guide to Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. In fact, more than 75 percent of people older than fifty-five show the joint deformations of OA on X-rays. But most of these people have no symptoms. For people who do have the joint pain and stiffness of OA, it can become a crippling disease. Some […]

A Patient’s Guide to Gout


Gout is a disease that involves the build-up of uric acid in the body. About 95 percent of gout patients are men. Most men are over 50 when gout first appears. Women generally don’t develop gout until after menopause. But some people develop gout at a young age.

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