Specialists

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Scoliosis

Basics Description Scoliosis is a 3D curvature of the spine, best appreciated on an AP radiograph and physical examination. Both thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine may be affected. It is defined as a curve >10°. Classification: Etiology: Idiopathic Congenital Neuromuscular Connective tissue Degenerative Location (of the apex or middle of the curve): […]

Osteoporosis

Basics Description Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and an increase in fracture risk. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density score 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean value for a young person of the same gender […]

Friedreich Ataxia

Basics Description Friedreich ataxia is an uncommon, heritable disorder causing progressive spinocerebellar degeneration. Scoliosis, ataxia, and foot deformities are the most common findings. Systems affected: Central nervous system; Heart; Skeleton Classification: No subclassifications are used in Friedreich ataxia. It is classified under the category spinocerebellar degeneration, and it is the most common example of […]

A Patient’s Guide to Vertebroplasty

Introduction

Patients with osteoporosis are prone to compression fractures in the spine bones, or vertebrae. The front of a vertebra cracks under pressure, causing it to collapse in height. More than 700,000 such fractures occur every year in the United States. These fractures often cause poor back posture, debilitating pain, and difficulty completing routine activities.

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A Patient’s Guide to Spinal Compression Fractures

Introduction

Compression fractures are the most common type of fracture affecting the spine. A compression fracture of a spine bone (vertebra) causes the bone to collapse in height.

Compression fractures are commonly the result of osteoporosis. About 700,000 cases of compression fractures due to osteoporosis occur each year in the United States. Spine bones that […]

A Patient’s Guide to Scheuermann’s Disease

Introduction

The section of spine from below the neck to the bottom of the rib cage is called the thoracic spine. From the side, the thoracic spine appears slightly rounded. Its shape is like the letter C with the opening facing the front of the body. This normal curve is called kyphosis. With excessive kyphosis, […]

A Patient’s Guide to Kyphoplasty

Introduction

Patients with osteoporosis are prone to compression fractures in the spine bones, or vertebrae. The bone cracks under pressure, causing it to collapse in height. More than 700,000 such fractures occur every year in the United States.

The fracture angles the spine forward and produces a hunchbacked appearance, called kyphosis. Patients with this condition […]

A Patient’s Guide to Lumbar Spine Anatomy

Introduction

Knowing the main parts of your low back and how these parts work is important as you learn to care for your back problem.

Two common anatomic terms are useful as they relate to the low back. The term anterior refers to the front of the spine. The term posterior refers to the back […]

A Patient’s Guide to Low Back Pain

Introduction

Low back pain is one of the main reasons Americans visit their doctor. For adults over 40, it ranks third as a cause for doctor visits, after heart disease and arthritis.

Eighty percent of people will have low back pain at some point in their lives. And nearly everyone who has low back pain […]

A Patient’s Guide to Dropped Head Syndrome

Introduction

Dropped Head Syndrome is characterized by severe weakness of the muscles of the back of the neck. This causes the chin to rest on the chest in standing or sitting. Floppy Head Syndrome and Head Ptosis are other names used to describe the syndrome.

Most of the time, Dropped Head Syndrome is caused by […]