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Tibial Spine Avulsion Fracture

SYMPTOMS

This injury is caused by a sprain and prevents continuation of sport in a young growing athlete usually below or just above 15 years of age. The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the bone, and pain. This is an injury that is not uncommon in contact sports such […]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL)

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are pain and immediate haemarthrosis, caused by bleeding from the ruptured ligament. This is an injury common in contact sports such as football, rugby and other high intensity sports such as downhill skiing. There is often a ‘pop’ sound from the knee and an inability to continue.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers […]

Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Basics Description Injury to the OSD, the primary stabilizer to posterior translation of the tibia on the femur at the knee Classification (see Posterior drawer test under Physical Exam): Grade 1: Tibial plateau is anterior to the femoral condyles. Grade 2: Tibial plateau is level with the femoral condyles. Grade 3: Tibial plateau is […]

Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee

Basics Description A pathologic joint entity of localized bone necrosis with overlying cartilage injury Osteochondritis dissecans primarily affects the knee, but it is also seen in the hip (in late Legg-Calve-Perthes disease), elbow, and ankle. Osteochondritis dissecans occurs primarily in the 2nd decade of life, but it also is seen in children and older […]

Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

Basics Description An MCL injury is a sprain of the MCL, which is the primary restraint to valgus stress on the knee. It occurs mainly in athletic teenagers and young adults, and equally among males and females. Classification: Grade I (mild): Microscopic sprain with intact fibers Grade II (moderate): Partial tear Grade III (severe): […]

Knee Examination in the Child

Basics Description It is important, during a knee examination, to keep in mind the child’s age and to understand the age-specific pediatric knee disorders. Congenital hyperextension or dislocation of the knee: Varies from simple hyperextension to anterior dislocation of the tibia on the femur Hyperextended knee presents at birth. A hyperextensible knee resolves spontaneously, […]

Knee Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy of the knee consists of compartments, bones, menisci, ligaments, muscles, and nerves. 3 compartments: Medial, lateral, and patellofemoral Bones: Patella: Serves as fulcrum to aid knee extension Medial and lateral menisci: Fibrocartilaginous structures in medial and lateral femorotibial compartments Aid in joint lubrication and nutrition and in load distribution across articular […]

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

Basics Description The ACL is critical for knee function in athletes who require knee stability in activities such as running, cutting, jumping, and kicking. The ACL originates on the posteromedial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle and inserts anterior to and between the intercondylar eminences of the tibia. The ACL is composed of 2 […]