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Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Transversus Abdominis

The TrA is the deepest muscle of the abdominal muscle complex, with the internal and external oblique being more ventral and the rectus abdominis in the center with a fascial envelope encased with a bilaminar aponeurosis. The TrA is the deepest muscle of the abdominal muscle complex, with the internal and external oblique being more […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Thoracolumbar Fascia

The thoracolumbar fascia has three layers—anterior, middle, and posterior—creating an envelope for the muscles of the lumbar spine. The anterior layer originates from the anterior surfaces of the transverse processes of the lumbar spine and intertransverse ligaments, and it covers the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum.

The middle layer is attached to the tips […]

Anatomy of The Lumbar Back Muscles-Multifidus

The multifidus is the most medial and largest of the paraspinal muscles. It has an origin and insertion of vertebra to vertebra attachments within the lumbar spine and between the lumbar and sacral vertebrae .

The multifidus is composed of repeating fascicles, which originate from the laminae and spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae and […]

A Patient’s Guide to Lumbar Spondylolysis

Introduction

Spondylolysis happens when a crack forms in the bony ring on the back of the spinal column. Most commonly, this occurs in the low back. In this condition, the bone that protects the spinal cord fractures as a result of excessive or repeated strain. The area affected is called the pars interarticularis, so doctors […]

A Patient’s Guide to Cervical Laminectomy

Introduction

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal cord due to spinal stenosis. In spinal stenosis, bone spurs press against the spinal cord, leading to a condition called myelopathy. Myelopathy can produce problems with the bowels and bladder, disruptions in the way you walk, and impairments with fine motor skills […]