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Nerve Injuries/Entrapment

Nerve injuries can occur with both arthroscopic and open shoulder procedures. The axillary nerve courses from anterior to posterior from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, 3 to 5 mm medial to musculotendinous junction of the inferior lateral border of the subscapularis muscle. It lies in contact with the GH joint capsule until it […]


The proximal humerus is composed of the humeral head, the lesser and greater tuberosities, the bicipital groove, and the proximal humeral shaft, and it is highly variable. The anatomical neck lies at the junction of the articular surface of the head and the greater tuberosity and humeral shaft. The surgical neck lies below the greater […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The athlete with a burner may come off the field shaking his or her arm and hand. If significant neck pain exists, or when neurological symptoms involve two or more extremities, cervical spine precautions should be taken with the athlete until the player is cleared from having a cervical spine injury.

A typical examination of […]


Bony landmarks The lateral malleolus, the base of the fifth metatarsal and the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint constitute the important bony landmarks at the lateral aspect of ankle and foot.From these bony points nearly all palpable lateral structures can be ascertained.

Resisted lateral rotation


The subject sits with the lower legs pendent. The examiner squats in front of the knee. The ipsilateral hand is placed against the lateral aspect of the forefoot and maintains dorsiflexion. The contralateral hand encircles the heel from the medial side.


The patient is asked to turn the foot outwards while the examiner […]

Resisted abduction


The subject lies supine and relaxed with both hips slightly abducted. The examiner stands at the foot-end of the couch and places both hands on the lateral aspect of the lower legs, just proximal to the ankles.


Resist the abduction movement.

Common mistakes. None.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Imporlanl abdllclors: […]

Passive tests-Passive glenohumeral abduction


The subject stands with the upper arm alongside the body. The examiner stands level with and behind the subject’s arm. One hand takes hold of the elbow, just above the joint.The thumb of the other hand is placed against the lateral aspect of the lower angle of the scapula.


Abduct the arm […]

Elbow Injuries in Children

Elbow injuries in children

Unique bony problems of the elbow are seen in children and adolescents. The pathology of these problems corresponds to each stage in the development of the elbow—that is, prior to the appearance of all the secondary centers of ossification in children; prior to fusion of the ossification centers in adolescents; and […]

Injuries to the Axillary Nerve

The axillary nerve supplies the deltoid and teres minor muscles and runs close to the shoulder joint. Damage to this nerve usually occurs as a complication of dislocation or fracture of the upper part of the humerus. The symptoms include radiating pain and impaired sensation over the lateral aspect of the upper arm, along […]

Dislocation of the Shoulder Joint

Dislocation of the shoulder joint is a relatively common injury in sports such as ice hockey, team handball, American football, rugby, riding, alpine skiing, skating, and wrestling. Shoulder dislocations are 3 times more common in men 20–30 years old, than in persons aged over 30 years. The male to female ratio for primary dislocation is […]