Featured on Channel NewsAsia

Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The spine is a complex system composed of bony elements, articulations, ligaments, muscles, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves divided into anterior, middle, and posterior columns. The vertebral body, lamina, and the spinous process protect the spinal cord. The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae and 5 nerve roots. Most lumbar spines have a […]

Cervical Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy: The cervical spine contains 7 cervical vertebrae, from which arise 8 nerve roots. The normal cervical spine has a lordotic curvature. Intact functional cervical vertebrae are vital because they protect both the spinal cord and the vertebral artery. Of the 8 nerve roots that arise from the cervical vertebrae, all but […]


Scoliosis is common in girls and generally presents during the adolescence period. A scoliosis is a lateral bending or sideways curve in the spine that is apparent when viewing the spine from behind. In many occasions, there are asymmetry of the rib cage, shoulders and breasts. The pelvic ring usually tilts to one side. A […]