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Resisted inversion of the foot


The patient lies supine with the knee extended and the foot in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot. The contralateral hand is placed at the lateral and distal end of the leg just above the lateral malleolus. The ipsilateral hand is placed against the medial border of the foot.

Procedure. […]


The medial and lateral malleoli are easily palpated.A horizontal line drawn 2 cm proximal to the tip of the lateral malleolus and 1 cm proximal to the tip of the medial malleolus closely delineates the inferior tibial border. During a resisted dorsiflexion, the tendons of the tibialis anterior , the extensor hallucis longus and the […]

Palpation of the anterior talofibular ligament

The index finger is laid on the anterior surface of the lateral malleolus. A combined plantar flexion-inversion movement of the ankle makes the lateral process of the talus more prominent. The ligament is felt as a thin, flat and horizontal structure, pressing against the palpating finger.


Bony landmarks The lateral malleolus, the base of the fifth metatarsal and the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint constitute the important bony landmarks at the lateral aspect of ankle and foot.From these bony points nearly all palpable lateral structures can be ascertained.

Palpation of soft tissue

The Achilles tendon is easily visible and palpable.1t inserts at the upper and posterior border of the caleaneus. The plantar aspect of the calcaneus is covered by a soft heel pad. The tip of the lateral malleolus is level with the lateral jOint line of the talocaleanean joint. Its inferior border extends about 1 em […]

Ankle and foot-POSTERIOR

Calcaneus, medial and lateral malleolus are visible landmarks. The upper surface of the tuber calcanei can easily be palpated and forms the basis of the triangle whose legs are formed by the anterior border of the Achilles tendon and the posterior aspect of the tibia.The posterior border of the talus, nipped between tibia and caleaneu, […]

Ankle Sprain

Basics Description Acute sprains of the lateral ligaments about the ankle are the most common injury in sports and also occur commonly in the general population. Most commonly a partial tear or complete rupture of the ATFL occurs. More severe injuries include the CFL . Lateral ankle sprain results from an inversion mechanism. Classification […]

Ankle Instability

Basics Description Recurrent ankle sprains occurring primarily from an inversion stress on a plantarflexed ankle, which lead to chronic ankle pain and instability Divided into 2 types: Functional instability: Pain causes ankle to be unstable. Feeling of ankle giving way Neuromuscular deficit True mechanical instability: Frank insufficiency of ligaments Physiologic ROM is exceeded. Positive […]

A Patient’s Guide to Foot Anatomy


Our feet are constantly under stress. It’s no wonder that 80 percent of us will have some sort of problem with our feet at some time or another. Many things affect the condition of our feet: activity level, occupation, other health conditions, and perhaps most importantly, shoes. Many of the problems that arise in […]

A Patient’s Guide to Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity


Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is a painful condition resulting from the collapse of the longitudinal (lengthwise) arch of the foot. As the name suggests, this condition is not present at birth or during childhood. It occurs after the skeleton is fully matured.

In the past it was referred to a posterior tibial tendon […]