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Passive medial rotation


The subject lies in the supine position with the knee and hip flexed to right angles. The examiner stands level with the subject’S knee.One forearm carries the lower leg. The other hand grasps the calcaneus from the lateral side.Both hands clasp tightly under the heel which is forced into dorsiflexion.


A combined movement […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

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Passive extension


The subject lies in the supine position with the legs extended. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the lower leg at the heel, while the other carries the knee from the lateral side with the thumb on the tibial tuberosity.

Procedure. Move the leg upwards. Perform a quick and […]

Fracture of the Hook of the Hamate

The hook of the hamate bone projects anteriorly on the lateral side of the palm. A compression fracture of this bone is a rare injury, but it may occur in racket sports, baseball, ice hockey, and cycling if the handle of the racket, bat, club, stick or handlebar is compressed on to the hook of […]

Medial Elbow Injuries

Thrower’s elbow or golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis, medial elbow tendinosis)

Thrower’s or golfer’s elbow is similar to tennis elbow, but the symptoms are located over the inner (medial) epicondyle of the elbow. A right-handed golf player may well suffer from tennis elbow in the (leading) left elbow and golfer’s elbow in the (following) right […]

Elbow Injuries in Children

Elbow injuries in children

Unique bony problems of the elbow are seen in children and adolescents. The pathology of these problems corresponds to each stage in the development of the elbow—that is, prior to the appearance of all the secondary centers of ossification in children; prior to fusion of the ossification centers in adolescents; and […]