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Surgical complications related to ASAD are similar to those of other shoulder procedures. They can be separated into complications related to inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis and those related to incorrect technique.

An incomplete diagnosis can occur from failure to recognize and address coexisting pathology such as a labral tear or partial rotator cuff tear. These […]

Visual testing by eliciting fluctuation


The subject lies in the supine position with the leg extended.


The examiner strokes in a sweeping motion with the back of one hand over the lateral recessus and the suprapatellar pouch. This moves the fluid upwards and medially. In minor effusion, all the fluid is moved to the medial part […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Radius and ulna can be identified. At the distal and ulnar side of the ulna a bony prominence can be felt: the pisiform bone. Put the interphalangeal joint of the thumb onto the pisiform and direct the thumb towards the base of the index finger of the subject. Flex the thumb and feel its tip […]


Bony landmarks

Three bony prominences can be identified. On an extended elbow they lie in one line. Laterally is situated the lateral epicondyle and medially the medial epicondyle. In between lies the olecranon, gross and prominent. During flexion of the elbow the olecranon moves downwards which makes its apex easily palpable. In a bent elbow […]

Palpation of soft tissue

Palpation of the deltoid muscle The deltoid muscle is easy to recognize. It forms the most important muscular mass of the shoulder and is responsible for its round look.The anterior portion overlies the anterior border of the acromion and the lesser tuberosity. The middle portion lies over the lateral border of the acramion and the […]


The scapula is the most important bone at the posterior side of the thorax. It has a very prominent spine that is easy to palpate. Feel the scapula’s acromion which can be recognized as a flat bone overlying the shoulder joint.Palpate the anterior aspect of the clavicle and continue further laterally until the acromial end […]


Bony landmarks


The clavicle is the most prominent bone and is easily detectable because it lies subcutaneously.Its medial part is convex and the lateral third is concave. Its medial end (sternal end) is bulbous and articulates with the sternum.The lateral end is flattened and articulates with prominence can be felt.

This is the […]

Rotator Cuff Injury

In 75% of cases of shoulder pain, the main source is the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff. The supraspinatus muscle, together with the deltoid, raises the arm to initiate abduction. If there is a complete tear, the athlete cannot hold the arm elevated in the scapular plane between 60° and 120° and has to […]