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Leg Length Discrepancy

Leg Length Discrepancy

Leg Length Discrepancy

What is leg length discrepancy?

Leg length discrepancy is an orthopaedic problem that usually appears in childhood, in which one’s two legs are of unequal lengths. Often abbreviated as ‘LLD,’ leg length discrepancy may be caused by or associated with a number of other orthopaedic or medical conditions, but is […]

Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]

Short Stature

Basics Description Short stature is defined as height under the 3rd percentile for age of the general population. Many causes for short stature exist; orthopaedic causes are addressed here. Most common cause overall is familial or constitutional short stature The most common orthopaedic cause is osteochondrodysplasia, a group of skeletal disorders (>600 types) characterized […]

Septic Arthritis

Basics Description Septic arthritis is an infection of the joint. In infants, the capillaries penetrating the physeal plate into the epiphysis persist until age 18 months, so spread of infection may occur from the metaphysis indirectly to the epiphysis and then to the joint. Possible irreparable damage to growth plate occurs. Classification: Polyarticular septic […]

Hip Replacement

Basics Description Many forms of arthritis lead to destruction of the articular cartilage of the hip joint, resulting in pain and loss of function. End-stage arthritis can be treated with surgical replacement of the joint. Elderly patients may have a greater risk of cardiac complications and more associated medical problems than younger patients. Patients […]

Hip Arthritis

Basics Description Hip arthritis is caused by loss of the articular cartilage of the acetabulum and proximal femur. As the cartilage is lost, the subchondral bone of the proximal femur and the acetabulum rub, causing pain with ambulation, loss of motion, and disability. General Prevention Low-impact exercise (swimming, biking, walking) Activity modification Weight loss […]

Achilles Tendinitis


Basics Description Common overuse injury Represents a spectrum of disorders involving the Achilles tendon, paratenon, and retrocalcaneal bursa Ranges from painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon and its sheath to chronic degenerative tendinosis and tearing Definitions: Retrocalcaneal bursitis: Inflammation of the retrocalcaneal bursa, sparing tendon Paratenonitis: Paratenon inflammation Achilles tendinitis: Acute inflammation of […]