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Protocol for Positioning and Helmet Removal-The Prone Athlete

If an athlete is found in the prone position after an injury, cervical spine injury should be assumed. The team physician and the training staff should complete their initial evaluation (i.e., primary survey) without moving the athlete. The team physician and athletic trainer position themselves by the patient. The trainer stabilizes the cervical spine […]

Ankle and foot-POSTERIOR

Calcaneus, medial and lateral malleolus are visible landmarks. The upper surface of the tuber calcanei can easily be palpated and forms the basis of the triangle whose legs are formed by the anterior border of the Achilles tendon and the posterior aspect of the tibia.The posterior border of the talus, nipped between tibia and caleaneu, […]

External recurvatum test


The subject lies supine with both legs relaxed and extended. The examiner grasps the big toes.


Both legs are lifted simultaneously. The amount of external rotation of the tibial plateau and the degree of recurvatum are observed. In a positive test, unilateral excess of external rotation and recurvatum is seen.

Passive extension


The subject lies in the supine position with the legs extended. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the lower leg at the heel, while the other carries the knee from the lateral side with the thumb on the tibial tuberosity.

Procedure. Move the leg upwards. Perform a quick and […]

PASSIVE TESTS-Passive flexion


The subject lies in the supine position with extended legs. The examiner stands level with the subject’s knee. One hand grasps the distal part of the leg, just proximal to the malleoli; the other hand grasps the knee at the medial femoral condyle.


Move the extended leg upwards until the knee can […]

Resisted abduction


The subject lies supine and relaxed with both hips slightly abducted. The examiner stands at the foot-end of the couch and places both hands on the lateral aspect of the lower legs, just proximal to the ankles.


Resist the abduction movement.

Common mistakes. None.

Anatomical structures tested:

Muscle function:

• Imporlanl abdllclors: […]


The biomechanics of the ankle and foot are important for the normal function of the lower extremity. The foot is the terminal joint in the lower kinetic chain.

Range-of-motion exercises

Ankle dorsiflexion/plantar flexion

Sitting with your legs out straight, pull your whole foot and ankle up towards you as far as possible, keeping your knee […]

Pressure sores

People with paralyzed legs often are dependent on crutches or a wheelchair and often have impaired sensitivity over the buttocks. Sitting for a long time causes pressure that can result in the development of pressure sores. These start as small red spots that do not look particularly ominous, but if overlooked because of impaired sensitivity, […]

Spinal Stenosis

The vertebral column can be affected by stenosis (narrowing of the vertebral canal) from causes other than a slipped and protruding disk, including wear of the facet joints and osteophyte formation. This condition, which is not common, mainly affects those over 60 years old, especially middle-aged former wrestlers and weightlifters who have sustained strenuous loads […]

Prescription Sports


Running is one of the most popular sports in the world. This not only covers marathons and track and field running – running is also part of the training in virtually all other sports, including soccer, rugby, handball and triathlon. Running is a very efficient method for maintaining or improving […]