Specialists

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Scoliosis

Basics Description Scoliosis is a 3D curvature of the spine, best appreciated on an AP radiograph and physical examination. Both thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine may be affected. It is defined as a curve >10°. Classification: Etiology: Idiopathic Congenital Neuromuscular Connective tissue Degenerative Location (of the apex or middle of the curve): […]

Patellar Dislocation

Basics Description Patellar dislocation usually refers to lateral displacement of the patella out of its normal alignment in the trochlear groove of the femur. The patella is held stable by ligamentous forces, muscular forces, and bony anatomy. Disruption of any of these 3 components can lead to recurrent patellar instability. Classification: Subluxation: Patella sits […]

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

Basics Description DDH covers a spectrum of varying degrees of superolateral displacement of the femur and deformation of the acetabulum, developing mostly in utero or, rarely, in infancy. It usually is discovered on routine screening in early childhood. It occasionally is discovered in teens with a limp or pain, in which case it probably […]

Blount Disease

Basics Description Bowing of the legs can be a normal stage of growth for infants and toddlers. This phase is called physiologic bowing and resolves spontaneously by approximately 2 years of age. The vast majority of children presenting with bowed legs have this benign physiologic state. More rarely, bowed legs may be pathologic. The […]

Achondroplasia

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Basics Description Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. Characteristics: Patient height <4.5 feet at maturity The greatest shortening occurs in the proximal humerus and femur . Hypoplasia of the midface and frontal bossing may be present. Arthritis is rarely seen, but spinal stenosis is the most serious possible complication. Affects the skeletal […]