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The glenohumeral joint is formed by a unique articulation between a larger and nearly spherical humeral head with a shallow and much smaller glenoid. Minimal bony constraints combined with a unique anatomical architecture and functional arrangements allow the shoulder joint to have the largest range of motion in the body.

Despite its minimally constrained […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

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The ankle joint is a remarkable example of the functional interplay between bones, joints, and ligamentous structures, with their protective action upon one another. The ankle joint is maintained by the wedge-shaped talus and its sculptured fit between the tibia and fibula. In the neutral position of the ankle, there are strong osseous (bony) constraints. […]

Ligamentous Injuries and Dislocations

Injury to the ligamentous structures surrounding the fingers and thumb is common during sports activities, especially those that involve ball handling or heavy physical contact. The key to the treatment of hand injuries is to make an accurate diagnosis through careful history and examination. Failure to recognize the importance of these injuries leads to poor […]

Wrist Injuries

Wrist problems are more common in hand-intensive sports and sports that entail gripping an object such as a tennis racket or golf club. Most injuries are due to repetitive overuse. Wrist fractures can occur in sports with high-energy falls, such as snowboarding, skiing, and skating.

The wrist and hand are complex anatomic structures that allow […]