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Periarticular Ligamentous Tissue: A Biochemical and Physiologic Assessment-Key Points

Key Points

Although tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of fibrillar collagens, they have entirely different functions. Tendons are a conduit, connecting muscle to bone. Ligaments are short bands of fibrous tissue that bind bone to bone. Collagen is the single most abundant animal protein in mammals. Collagen molecules assemble into characteristic fibers responsible for […]

Anterior drawer test in external rotation

Positioning.

The subject is positioned as for the previous test. The lower leg and foot are externally rotated as far as is comfortably possible.The examiner places both hands around the upper part of the tibia with the index fingers on the hamstring tendons and the thumbs at the anterior border of the joint .

Procedure. […]

Passive lateral rotation in prone position

The subject lies in the prone position with both knees flexed to a right angle. The examiner encircles both heels and performs a bilateral external rotation. The range of movement is assessed by the twisted position of the feet. This test may be decisive in comparing the range of external rotation.

Common pathological situations:

• […]

Palpation of soft tissues at the medial side

Medial collateral ligament

The medial collateral Hgament is a broad, flat and almost triangular band, with a large insertion on the posterosuperior aspect of the medial femoral epicondyle, dose to the insertion of the adductor magnus tendon. Its fibres run obliquely, anteriorly and inferiorly, to insert at the medial aspect of the tibia, just behind […]

Knee

The knee is the most frequently injured joint in athletics.Most injuries are due to the extreme stresses of twisting and turning activities such as those found in skiing, soccer, and American football. Medial collateral ligament and meniscal injuries are in the majority, but anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are also common and are responsible for a […]

Types of Elbow Injury

Elbow injuries in adults

Elbow injuries can be grouped into those occurring in medial, lateral, posterior or anterior areas.

Medial injuries

Medial injuries include medial epicondylitis, injury to the common flexors (myositis or acute rupture), compression of the hypertrophied pronator teres by the overlying fascia, chronic elongation and/or rupture of the medial collateral ligament with […]

Etiology of Skiing Injuries

Skiing

Since the 1960s participation in downhill skiing has increased at least 40-fold in the USA. The number of skiers is estimated to be around 8 million on an annual basis. The number of ski injuries annually is probably more than 1 million per year worldwide.

Skier-related factors

Relative to the population at risk, men […]

Posterior Medial Corner Injuries

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are acute posterior and medial knee pain and haemarthrosis, which is caused by bleeding from the ruptured posterior medial capsule. Since the capsule ruptures, the extent of bleeding is often underestimated. This injury is fairly uncommon but occurs in contact sports such as football, rugby and others.

AETIOLOGY

The typical […]

Prescription Sports

RUNNING ON A HARD SURFACE

Running is one of the most popular sports in the world. This not only covers marathons and track and field running – running is also part of the training in virtually all other sports, including soccer, rugby, handball and triathlon. Running is a very efficient method for maintaining or improving […]

Medial Collateral Ligament Injury

Basics Description An MCL injury is a sprain of the MCL, which is the primary restraint to valgus stress on the knee. It occurs mainly in athletic teenagers and young adults, and equally among males and females. Classification: Grade I (mild): Microscopic sprain with intact fibers Grade II (moderate): Partial tear Grade III (severe): […]