Specialists

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SPECIFIC TESTS

Combined plantar flexion-inversion Significance.

This movement brings all the lateral structures of ankle and foot under stretch and is therefore an extremely important test in sprained ankles.

Positioning.

The heel rests on the couch, the knee is slightly flexed and the ankle is in neutral position. The examiner is distal to the foot. […]

Palpation of soft tissues at the medial side

Medial collateral ligament

The medial collateral Hgament is a broad, flat and almost triangular band, with a large insertion on the posterosuperior aspect of the medial femoral epicondyle, dose to the insertion of the adductor magnus tendon. Its fibres run obliquely, anteriorly and inferiorly, to insert at the medial aspect of the tibia, just behind […]

Passive abduction

POSitioning.

The subject lies in the supine position,near the border of the couch, with the lower leg pendent. The examiner stands level with the subject’s hip. One hand grasps the distal thigh from the medial side. The other hand is placed on the opposite anterior superior iliac spine in order to stabilize the pelvis.

Procedure. […]

Elbow Instability (Rupture of the Medial Collateral Ligaments)

The valgus stress overload syndrome can cause medial tension resulting in torsion of the medial (ulnar) collateral ligament (MCL). This ligament, especially its anterior band, is of great importance for elbow stability. It is composed of two parts: the origin of the anterior band is posterior to the axis of elbow rotation, while the origin […]

Elbow Injuries in Children

Elbow injuries in children

Unique bony problems of the elbow are seen in children and adolescents. The pathology of these problems corresponds to each stage in the development of the elbow—that is, prior to the appearance of all the secondary centers of ossification in children; prior to fusion of the ossification centers in adolescents; and […]

Injuries to the Long Thoracic Nerve

The long thoracic nerve supplies the serratus anterior muscle which holds the scapula in position. An isolated injury to this nerve can occur during violent shoulder movements, e.g. during weightlifting.

Backstroke swimmers may also sustain similar damage as their arm is moved through a combination of external rotation and forwards and upwards lifting. When the […]

Etiology of Tendon Injury

Training errors, such as sudden increase in running distance or a change in activity, are the primary etiological factor in most tendon overuse injuries. Errors include increased frequency of training and running on curved trails, hard or slippery roads, or soft beaches. The principle of transition (according to Leadbetter 1992) is that sports injuries are […]