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Video on Knee Pain due to Meniscus Injury

Cellular Response to Injury

The ability of fibrochondrocytes within a meniscus to mount a reparative response is dependent in part upon cellular activity. Cytokines and growth factors present during the inflammatory response to injury may promote meniscal healing through enhancement of cell migration, cell division, and the production of extracellular matrix.

While no specific growth factor has been shown […]

Meniscal Function

While the term “shock absorber” has often been used to describe the meniscus, the menisci actually serve many functions in the human knee. Additional functions are theorized to be load bearing, lubrication, and proprioception. The meniscal function of load bearing may be clinically inferred by the degenerative changes that accompany meniscectomy.

Fairbank described radiographic changes […]

Ultrastructure

Histologically, the meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous tissue composed primarily of an interlacing network of collagen fibers interposed with cells. The cells of the meniscus are responsible for synthesizing and maintaining the extracellular matrix. There is still some debate as to whether the cells of the meniscus are fibroblasts, chondrocytes, or a mixture of both and […]

The Proteoglycans

Proteoglycans consist of small amounts of protein bound to negatively charged polysaccharide chains referred to as GAGs. In articular cartilage, proteoglycans form a large portion of the macromolecular framework (commonly about 30% to 35% of the tissue dry weight), but in ligaments they form only a small portion of this framework, usually less than 1% […]

Test III

Positioning..

The subject lies supine with the knee fully flexed (heel to the buttock). The examiner passes his flexed thumbtip from above downwards over the joint line at the affected side . This is easier to perform at the medial side than on the lateral.

Procedure..

A ruptured meniscus is suspected when it is possible […]

Posterior cruciate ligament injuries

PCL tears of the knee are not very common; they constitute only 5-10% of all major knee ligament tears.

Anatomy The PCL has an average width of 0.5 in (13 mm) and length of 1.5 in (38 mm). It is fan-shaped, being narrowest in the midportion and fanning out superiorly and, to a lesser extent, […]

Medial collateral ligament injuries

Medial collateral ligament injuries The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee. The incidence is probably higher than reported, because many minor MCL injuries are never seen by physicians. The treatment of these injuries has changed; in the 1970s surgical treatment was common, but today most MCL injuries are treated conservatively, with […]

Posterior Lateral Corner Injuries

SYMPTOMS

The symptoms are immediate haemarthrosis and pain in the posterior lateral corner of the knee. This injury is common in contact sports such as football and rugby. The diagnosis is often missed.

AETIOLOGY

The typical athlete suffers a hyperextension and varus rotation sprain during sport. The posterior lateral corner structures involve the […]

A Patient’s Guide to Meniscal Surgery

Introduction

The meniscus is very important to the long-term health of the knee. In the past, surgeons would simply take out part or all of an injured meniscus. But today’s surgeons know that removing the meniscus can lead to early knee arthritis. Whenever possible, they try to repair the tear. If the damaged area must […]