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Glenohumeral arthrosis has been a well-described complication of various surgical procedures to correct shoulder instability. Over-tightening of the anterior structures, can result in stiffness, and drive the humeral head posteriorly, creating shear on the cartilage and early arthrosis.

Some patients paradoxically may have instability and stiffness. They feel unstable because of excessive laxity in […]

Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament

The IGHL functions as the primary restraint to anterior, posterior, and inferior glenohumeral translation between 45 degree and 90 degree elevation of the arm. The IGHL originates from the inferior half of the glenoid neck or the anterior-inferior labrum, to insert inferior to the MGHL on the lesser tuberosity.

The IGHL forms a hammocklike […]

Middle Glenohumeral Ligament

The middle glenohumeral ligament (MGHL) is a highly variable structure between individuals. It presents as either a discrete band or a thickening of the anterior capsule confluent with the inferior glenohumeral ligament (IGHL) complex in 60% to 80% of the population. The MGHL originates from the glenoid tubercle or the anterior labrum and inserts on […]

Rotator Interval

The RTI is an area of shoulder capsule that is bounded by the supraspinatus superiorly, the subscapularis inferiorly, the coracoid process medially, and the long head of the biceps tendon laterally. The floor of the RTI is variably bridged by the GH capsule, the SGHL, the CHL, and occasionally, the MGHL. This area serves as […]

Middle Glenohumeral Ligament

The MGHL originates on the supraglenoid tubercle or anterosuperior labrum, and it inserts on the lesser tuberosity running obliquely to the SGHL and the CHL. It is present between 60% and 80% of individuals as a discrete band or thickening of the anterior capsule confluent with the IGHL.

The MGHL becomes taut at 45 degrees […]

Superior Glenohumeral Ligament

The SGHL originates on the supraglenoid tubercle, just anterior to the origin of the long head of the biceps, and it inserts on the proximal tip of the lesser tuberosity, on the medial ridge of the intertubercular groove. The SGHL is present in more than 90% of individuals. In an anatomical study, Steinbeck et al. […]