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Anterior elbow injuries

Rupture of the distal part of the biceps tendon

The biceps tendon inserts distally into the radial tuberosity in the proximal forearm. It is responsible for flexion in the elbow and also for some supination. The tendon is susceptible to degenerative changes and ruptures occur in athletes over 35 years old. The injury mechanism is […]

Separation of the Sternoclavicular Joint

The sternoclavicular joint is seldom separated, but it is an important injury to recognize. The medial end of the clavicle, and hence the shoulder, is anchored to the sternum by the sternoclavicular ligaments. The joint cavity lies obliquely and contains a meniscus (disk). If the shoulder is subjected to a violent impact, the sternoclavicular joint […]

Complete Tendon Rupture

Complete tendon rupture (third-degree strain) often occurs in a degenerative tendon and is especially common in older athletes who return to sport after some years’ absence from training. These ruptures afflict badminton players in particular, and also participants in tennis, team handball, basketball, rugby, American football, and soccer, as well as long-jumpers, high-jumpers, and runners


Treatment Principles

The management of tendon injuries depends on the diagnosis. The treatment varies according to the different stages of the healing process. Tendon strength is a direct function not only of the number and size of collagen fibers, but also of their orientation. These fibers respond favorably to tension and motion and it is therefore important […]

A Patient’s Guide to Swan Neck Deformity of the Finger


Normal finger position and movement occur from the balanced actions of many important structures. Ligaments support the finger joints. Muscles hold and move the fingers. Tendons help control the fine motion of each finger joint. Disease or injury can disturb the balance in these structures, altering normal finger alignment and function. The result may […]