Specialists

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Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The spine is a complex system composed of bony elements, articulations, ligaments, muscles, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves divided into anterior, middle, and posterior columns. The vertebral body, lamina, and the spinous process protect the spinal cord. The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae and 5 nerve roots. Most lumbar spines have a […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Basics Description Cubital tunnel syndrome consists of pain and paresthesias over the medial border of the forearm and hand, as well as weakness in an ulnar nerve distribution from compression of the ulnar nerve as it passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow. It affects the elbow, forearm, and hand in the ulnar […]

Compartment Syndrome

Basics Description

Increase in tissue pressure within a limited space, compromising circulation and function of the contents of the space. Acute compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening emergency. Chronic (or exercise-induced or exertional) compartment syndrome usually is a self-limited symptomatic disorder. The elevated tissue pressure causes decreased perfusion, which can lead to necrosis of tissues and […]

Cervical Spine Trauma: Dislocation and Subluxation

Basics Description 11,000 cases annually require surgery. Average hospital stay: 9.4 days ; a prolonged stay partly attributable to delay in diagnosing vertebral injuries (frequently missed) Careful trauma-patient evaluation, increased understanding of injury patterns, and advanced imaging and treatment have decreased the morbidity and mortality associated with spinal column injuries . Classification: The Denis […]

Cervical Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Anatomy: The cervical spine contains 7 cervical vertebrae, from which arise 8 nerve roots. The normal cervical spine has a lordotic curvature. Intact functional cervical vertebrae are vital because they protect both the spinal cord and the vertebral artery. Of the 8 nerve roots that arise from the cervical vertebrae, all but […]