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Neuropsychological Testing

Neuropsychological tests are functional cognitive instruments that are used to assess changes in attention, concentration, memory, information-processing speed, and motor speed or coordination. These tests provide a validated means to quantify cognitive weakness, and it is increasingly clear that neuropsychological assessment is a useful tool for measuring both the initial and recovery stages of athletes […]

Management of Concussion

The management of concussion has three crucial considerations. First, immediate neurologic emergencies must be identified. Second, the devastating scenario of second-impact syndrome must be prevented, and the risk of recurrent concussive episodes should be minimized.

Finally, the cumulative effects of repeated concussion, which may lead to CTBI, must be avoided. The identification of neurologic emergencies […]

Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury

The long-term sequelae of multiple concussive events remain unclear. In boxers, dementia puglistica or punch drunk syndrome, which includes a pattern of ataxia, pyramidal tract dysfunction, tremor, impaired memory, dysarthria, and behavioral changes, has long been recognized as a result of the cumulative effects of concussions.

More recently, the term chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) […]


Overall, it is estimated that approximately 300,000 sports-related concussive events occur in the United States annually. It has been estimated that 3.9% to 7.7% of high school and college athletes sustain a concussion each year.

Contact sports in particular place athletes at risk for head trauma. Football is recognized as having the highest risk; however, […]