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The scapula is a flat, triangular-shaped bone that serves as the articulating surface for the head of the humerus as well as provides areas for 17 muscle attachments. With the arm at the side, the scapula overlaps the dorsal surfaces of the second to seventh ribs. It has three prominent projections: the spine, the coracoid […]

Shoulder Anatomy and Biomechanics

Key Points

The shoulder complex is composed of three bones—the clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus—as well as four articulations—the acromioclavicular (AC), the sternoclavicular (SC), the scapulothoracic, and the glenohumeral (GH) joints. The clavicle serves a variety of functions. It acts as a rigid base for muscular attachments of the shoulder, neck, and chest. It […]

Inflammation of Muscle Attachments

The muscle attachments around the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar spine can become inflamed as a result of overuse. Such injuries are most common among crosscountry skiers, javelin, discus and hammer throwers, weightlifters, and players of racket sports.


The athlete experiences:

– pain during exertion; – aching after exertion; – tenderness on […]


Inflammation is the body’s response to tissue injury caused by pressure, friction, repeated load or overload, and external trauma. Trauma is associated with bleeding, which causes swelling and increased pressure. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors (see above) contribute to the inflammatory reaction in tendon sheaths, tendon and muscle attachments, bursae, and the periosteum. Overuse injuries […]