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Dynamic Stability Factors

Glenohumeral stability is mainly achieved through dynamic factors. Active contraction of the rotator cuff contributes to joint stabilization by coordinated muscular activity and by secondary tightening of the ligamentous constraints. This effect works in combination with the concavity-compression mechanism, in which muscle contraction causes compression of nearly congruent articular surfaces into one another.

The rotator […]

Myotendinous Injury and Repair

The majority of skeletal muscle injuries that occur in sports are the result of indirect strain or direct blunt force trauma. Other forms of muscular injury, such as lacerations, ischemia, and infections, are not commonly seen in athletics.

The amount of research in the area of muscle injury and repair is growing, but we do […]

Myotendinous Junction

The myotendinous junction is the interface between muscle and tendon, and it allows the force generated by muscle contraction to be exerted on the skeleton to enact limb locomotion. To maximize the junctional surface area, a region of highly folded membranes in a fingerlike arrangement exists.

This increases the surface area between the muscle and […]

Biomechanics of Tendon

Tendon possesses unique linear and viscoelastic properties, allowing it to transmit high muscular forces to the skele- ton with minimal elongation during muscle contraction. Subjecting tendons to various tensile loads and examining tendon response can help to define tendon biomechanical properties.

A classic load–elongation curve results from lengthening a tendon at a constant rate under […]


Tendon Structure and Architecture

Tendon is juxtaposed between muscle and bone and is responsible for transmitting muscular forces to the skeletal system during limb locomotion. It is a dense, regularly arranged connective tissue that is well suited for resisting tensile loads with minimal elongation during muscle contraction.

Approximately 85% of a tendon’s dry weight is […]

Structural Proteins of Muscle

Myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin are the four major structural proteins that make up muscle. These proteins form the foundation of the basic contractile unit known as the sarcomere. The banding pattern seen in striated skeletal muscle comes from the repeating arrangement of two myofibrillar filaments, thick filaments and thin filaments.

Thick filaments are composed […]

Skeletal Muscle Cytology

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by its plasma membrane, or sarcolemma. Within this sarcolemma lie quiescent satellite cells that are essential for the repair of muscle after injury.

Following muscle injury, inflammatory substances are thought to stimulate these satellite cells to undergo proliferation and differentiation into new muscle fibers.

Fibers are further divided into smaller […]

Structure And Architecture Of Skeletal Muscle


Understanding the structure and architecture of skeletal muscle begins at the level of the muscle cell, or fiber, itself. Muscle fibers are multinucleated cells with a cylindrical shape, and they have diameters ranging between 10 to 100 µm. Fibers range a few millimeters to several centimeters in length. This wide variation in muscle fiber […]



The development of muscle strength is an essential component of any rehabilitation program. Strength is the ability of a muscle to generate force against some resistance. Muscle weakness or imbalance can result in abnormal movement or impaired performance. Physiological improvements occur only when an individual physically demands more of their tissues than is normally […]


Biomechanical considerations

The range of movement of a joint is normally limited by the articular surfaces, the ligaments, and the joint capsule, and by the length and flexibility of muscles and tendons. The ligaments and joint capsule are comparatively inelastic and are responsible for maintaining passive stability, while muscles and tendons control active stability.Muscles, tendons, […]