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Sprains and Strains

Although the terms sprain and strain are used loosely and have no precise clinical definition, a sprain generally refers to an injury to a ligament – one of the tough, fibrous cords within a joint that connects the bones together, and a strain refers to muscle injury.

Sprains and strains often occur together in or […]

Myotendinous Injury and Repair

The majority of skeletal muscle injuries that occur in sports are the result of indirect strain or direct blunt force trauma. Other forms of muscular injury, such as lacerations, ischemia, and infections, are not commonly seen in athletics.

The amount of research in the area of muscle injury and repair is growing, but we do […]

Skeletal Muscle Cytology

Each muscle fiber is surrounded by its plasma membrane, or sarcolemma. Within this sarcolemma lie quiescent satellite cells that are essential for the repair of muscle after injury.

Following muscle injury, inflammatory substances are thought to stimulate these satellite cells to undergo proliferation and differentiation into new muscle fibers.

Fibers are further divided into smaller […]

Hamstring Strain

Basics Description The hamstrings are long muscles in the posterior thigh that extend from the ischial tuberosity behind the hip, down to the knee. A hamstring strain is a stretch-induced muscle injury. Tears result from the hamstring muscle suddenly changing from a stabilizing flexor to an extensor. It usually is caused by quick starts […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Adult

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures occur in the diaphysis of the bone. High-energy trauma such as vehicular accidents, falls, or gunshots are the common causes of these fractures in normal bone. Low-energy trauma may cause femoral shaft fractures in pathologic or osteoporotic bone. Classification: Winquist and Hansen assessed fractures according to the proportion of […]