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After conservative treatment measures have failed, if the patient continues to have biceps associated symptoms, surgical management should be considered. The imaging studies previously discussed should be utilized prior to considering surgical treatment because of the significant overlap of biceps disorders and other shoulder conditions.

Biceps tendinitis is commonly associated with impingement syndrome and rotator […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

The physical examination of athletes with axillary nerve injury should include evaluation for range of motion (passive and active) as well as strength (abduction, forward elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation). Patients with a chronic history of the problem may demonstrate atrophy or asymmetry of the deltoid muscle mass.

A neurovascular examination should be performed […]

Training and exercising

Basic physical fitness

Good physical fitness is of the utmost importance in avoiding injury. Those whose basic fitness is below normal are more prone to injury both from trauma and from overuse.After a period of inactivity, the ability of the body tissues to utilize oxygen decreases noticeably. In one experiment, five healthy test subjects stayed […]