Specialists

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Radial Head Fracture

Basics Description Radial head fractures: Occur in the proximal 2-3 cm of the radius Are intra-articular fractures (The radial head articulates with capitellum.) Classification : Type 1: Nondisplaced fractures Type 2: Partial head fractures Type 3: Complete head fractures Radial head fractures often are associated with other injuries to the elbow or the forearm. […]

Metastatic Bone Disease

Basics Description The most common cause of destructive bone lesions in the adult The amount of bone destruction varies from small amounts to complete fracture. Bone metastases occur less commonly in children than in adults. Virtually any malignancy may metastasize to bone. With some cancers (such as breast and prostate cancer), virtually all patients […]

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Basics Description Low back pain affects up to 85% of the population at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in patients <50 years old. Herniation of a lumbar disc: 1 of the major causes of acute and chronic lower back pain May be associated […]

Knee Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the knee is an orthopaedic emergency. The most common causes are motor vehicle accidents, followed by sports and falls from heights. Classification: Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Rotary: Subclassified as anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, posterolateral General Prevention Seat belts and airbags are the best methods of prevention. Epidemiology Incidence Rare Associated Conditions […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Child

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures are defined as those >5 cm below the lesser trochanter, but above the distal metaphyseal (wider) portion of the lower femur. The location usually is specified as: Proximal Midshaft Distal Although the femur usually requires a large amount of energy to fracture, fractures can occur with low amounts of […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Adult

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures occur in the diaphysis of the bone. High-energy trauma such as vehicular accidents, falls, or gunshots are the common causes of these fractures in normal bone. Low-energy trauma may cause femoral shaft fractures in pathologic or osteoporotic bone. Classification: Winquist and Hansen assessed fractures according to the proportion of […]

Femoral Neck Fracture

Basics Description Femoral neck fracture is the most common cause of a broken hip. The femoral neck is the intracapsular portion of the proximal femur between the femoral head and the lesser and greater trochanters. Femoral neck fractures are most common in elderly patients, although younger patients involved in high-energy trauma also are affected. […]

Discitis

Basics Description Discitis is an infection of the disc space and vertebral endplate that is caused by hematogenous or postoperative inoculation. It affects intervertebral discs of the spine. The lower lumbar discs are most commonly involved. However, the infection may occur in any disc. Classification: Spontaneous (hematogenous) Iatrogenic (after discectomy or discogram) Epidemiology Hematogenous […]

Clavicle Fractures

Basics Description The clavicle serves as the primary bony connection between the thorax and upper limb. A fracture of the clavicle also is known as a broken collarbone. Classification: By location in the clavicle: proximal, middle, or distal 1/3. Fracture displacement and comminution are important factors. Clavicle fractures from high-energy trauma may be associated […]