Specialists

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Head Injuries and Concussion

Key Points

Traumatic events can lead to both primary injuries [e.g., scalp lacerations, intracranial bleeds, skull fractures, concussion, and diffuse axonal injury, (DAI)] and later, secondary injuries (e.g., herniation syndromes, diffuse edema, and hypoxic/ischemic injuries). Initial evaluation and treatment should progress through the ABCs (airway, breathing, and circulation) of trauma resuscitation. Glasgow Coma Scale is […]

Spondylolisthesis

Basics Description Spondylolisthesis is an abnormal AP translation of 2 vertebral bodies relative to each other. This translation is secondary to a defect in the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) or the posterior ligamentous-bony restraints. Spondylolisthesis is classified by type (Table 1) and by the severity of the slip (Table 2). General Prevention No preventive measures […]

Shoulder/Glenohumeral Arthritis

Basics Description Progressive loss of glenohumeral joint space with thinning of articular cartilage, formation of osteophytes, and progressive deformity Epidemiology Females are more likely than males to have primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Patients >60 years old are more likely to have it than are younger patients. Incidence ~0.4% in the general population Can reach 4.6% […]

Neck Pain

Basics Description In adults: Common Usually secondary to degenerative disc disease and arthritis In children and adolescents: Less common When it does occur, the pain often is secondary to a neoplasm or infection. Neck pain also occurs after trauma and is extremely common after motor vehicle accidents. General Prevention No definite methods of prevention […]

Metastatic Bone Disease

Basics Description The most common cause of destructive bone lesions in the adult The amount of bone destruction varies from small amounts to complete fracture. Bone metastases occur less commonly in children than in adults. Virtually any malignancy may metastasize to bone. With some cancers (such as breast and prostate cancer), virtually all patients […]

Hip Arthritis

Basics Description Hip arthritis is caused by loss of the articular cartilage of the acetabulum and proximal femur. As the cartilage is lost, the subchondral bone of the proximal femur and the acetabulum rub, causing pain with ambulation, loss of motion, and disability. General Prevention Low-impact exercise (swimming, biking, walking) Activity modification Weight loss […]