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Spine Fusion

Basics Description Spine fusion is a surgical procedure that causes 2 or more vertebral levels to be joined with solid bony healing in the spine. It is performed to correct spinal instability from traumatic, degenerative, or iatrogenic causes and to prevent spinal deformity progression. Epidemiology Incidence Over the last 2 decades, the incidence of […]

Spinal Stenosis

Basics Description Compression of neural elements secondary to osteoarthritic changes (bone spurs, hypertrophied ligamentum flavum, disc space narrowing) at intervertebral levels and facet joints Characterized by back and/or lower extremity pain, numbness, weakness, and possible bladder/bowel dysfunction. General Prevention No known preventive measures Epidemiology Symptoms develop during the 5th and 6th decades. No gender […]

Heterotopic Ossification

Basics Description Pathologic bone formation as a consequence of direct trauma or central nervous system injuries Bone formed in heterotopic locations such as muscle, subcutaneous tissues, or nerves Most commonly occurs at the hip, elbow, and shoulder joints. Epidemiology Less common in children than in adults, and more common in males than in females […]