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Standardized Assessment of Concussion

Standardized concussion assessment forms have been developed for initial evaluation of the concussed athlete. While standardized assessment is not a substitute for a physician evaluation or a formal neurologic or neuropsychological examination, it does help to detect and quantify initial cognitive deficits, and it provides an objective and standardized mental status examination directed toward the […]

Torticollis

Basics

Description A limitation of motion of the cervical spine that causes the head to be held in a tilted position May result from muscular, skeletal, or neurologic abnormalities (Fig. 1) Classification : Congenital abnormalities Acquired abnormalities Synonyms: Skeletal wry neck; Congenital wry neck; Cock-robin deformity; Sandifer syndrome (torticollis resulting from gastroesophageal reflux disease and […]

Tibial Plateau Fracture

Basics

Description The tibial plateau is the proximal weightbearing surface of the tibia. Articulates with the femoral condyles to form the knee joint Can be divided into medial and lateral components A tibial plateau fracture is any fracture involving the proximal articular surface of the tibia (Fig. 1). Classification by Schatzker et al. : Type […]

Achondroplasia

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Basics Description Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia. Characteristics: Patient height <4.5 feet at maturity The greatest shortening occurs in the proximal humerus and femur . Hypoplasia of the midface and frontal bossing may be present. Arthritis is rarely seen, but spinal stenosis is the most serious possible complication. Affects the skeletal […]