Specialists

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Management-Nonoperative Management

The athlete with no sign of cervical spine injury should be removed from play and observed on the sidelines. Symptoms usually are self-limited and mild. Athletes with prolonged burner symptoms are treated with removal from play, modification of activities, ice, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications.

A soft neck collar can be used for severe symptoms. Physical […]

Protocol for Positioning and Helmet Removal-Management in the Emergency Room

After safe transport, the care of the athlete is transferred to the hospital emergency room personnel. If possible, a member of the on-field medical team should accompany the athlete during transport.

This provides an accurate, knowledgeable briefing to the emergency room physicians, which may be essential during the early management of the case. Furthermore, the […]

Management of Cervical Spine Injuries-Scenario 2: Altered Mental Status without Cardiorespiratory Compromise

Care of the cervical spine in the collision athlete with altered mental status presents a challenging problem for the sports medicine physician. After a rapid primary survey, a brief neurological assessment is performed to determine the athlete’s level of consciousness.

Important aspects of the on-field neurological examination include assessment of mental status (i.e., Glasgow Coma […]

Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

Fractures of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

Fractures of vertebrae in the thoracic and lumbar regions are uncommon in sports, but can occur in riders, alpine skiers, ski-jumpers, and participants in contact sports

Symptoms and diagnosis

– Severe pain is felt at the site of the fracture. – Pain is triggered by any back movement. – […]

Open Fractures

Basics Description Open fractures are defined as situations in which the fracture site communicates with the outside environment. The bone does not need to protrude from the skin for the injury to be an open fracture. Any full-thickness skin laceration in the zone of fracture injury is considered an open fracture. Open fractures can […]

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Basics Description Low back pain affects up to 85% of the population at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in patients <50 years old. Herniation of a lumbar disc: 1 of the major causes of acute and chronic lower back pain May be associated […]

Klippel-Feil Syndrome

Basics Description Klippel-Feil syndrome is part of group of disorders characterized by malformations of the axial skeleton. Specifically, this syndrome is defined by the failure of segmentation of the cervical vertebrae. Its classic triad includes a low hairline, short neck, and limited neck motion. Associated conditions include congenital scoliosis, Sprengel deformity, hearing impairment, synkinesis, […]

Intercondylar Elbow Fracture

Basics Description Intra-articular fracture of the distal humerus, which may occur with a supracondylar fracture Biomechanically and anatomically, the distal humerus forms a triangle composed of a medial column and a lateral column that support the articular surface of the trochlea. The trochlea articulates with the ulna. The capitellum is the part of the […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Dislocation in the Adult

Basics Description Dislocation occurs when a force across a joint disrupts the restraining capsule, ligaments, and muscles. Dislocated joints may reduce spontaneously or remain unreduced. Dislocations can be associated with periarticular fractures, ruptured ligaments, capsular damage, and cartilage damage. The dislocation may result in stretch or injury to the arteries or nerves that cross […]