Specialists

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Open Fractures

Basics Description Open fractures are defined as situations in which the fracture site communicates with the outside environment. The bone does not need to protrude from the skin for the injury to be an open fracture. Any full-thickness skin laceration in the zone of fracture injury is considered an open fracture. Open fractures can […]

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Basics Description Low back pain affects up to 85% of the population at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in patients <50 years old. Herniation of a lumbar disc: 1 of the major causes of acute and chronic lower back pain May be associated […]

Klippel-Feil Syndrome

Basics Description Klippel-Feil syndrome is part of group of disorders characterized by malformations of the axial skeleton. Specifically, this syndrome is defined by the failure of segmentation of the cervical vertebrae. Its classic triad includes a low hairline, short neck, and limited neck motion. Associated conditions include congenital scoliosis, Sprengel deformity, hearing impairment, synkinesis, […]

Intercondylar Elbow Fracture

Basics Description Intra-articular fracture of the distal humerus, which may occur with a supracondylar fracture Biomechanically and anatomically, the distal humerus forms a triangle composed of a medial column and a lateral column that support the articular surface of the trochlea. The trochlea articulates with the ulna. The capitellum is the part of the […]

Foot and Ankle Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The major function of the foot and ankle is to allow even stress distribution between the foot and lower extremity during walking and running. For adequate function, the foot must be plantigrade (i.e., rest evenly flat on the ground) and painless. The muscles that control foot and ankle function include extrinsic (originating […]

Dislocation in the Adult

Basics Description Dislocation occurs when a force across a joint disrupts the restraining capsule, ligaments, and muscles. Dislocated joints may reduce spontaneously or remain unreduced. Dislocations can be associated with periarticular fractures, ruptured ligaments, capsular damage, and cartilage damage. The dislocation may result in stretch or injury to the arteries or nerves that cross […]

Burners (Stingers)

Basics Description Burners (also termed stingers) are traction injuries that result in a neurapraxia of the brachial plexus. Patients typically report pain that radiates into the shoulder and down the arm to the hand, which is usually described as a dead arm. These injuries are common in tackling sports and usually occur in teenagers […]

Back Pain

Basics Description Low back pain, the most common musculoskeletal condition, is responsible for the loss of 17 million work days per year in the United States and ~$60 billion of the annual U.S. health care budget. 70-80% of adults experience severe back pain at some time during their lives. Back pain, which affects the […]