Specialists

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Evaluation-Physical Examination

The physical examination of athletes with axillary nerve injury should include evaluation for range of motion (passive and active) as well as strength (abduction, forward elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation). Patients with a chronic history of the problem may demonstrate atrophy or asymmetry of the deltoid muscle mass.

A neurovascular examination should be performed […]

Evaluation-Physical Examination

Inspect the arm for symmetry with regard to size, color, and skin temperature. Palpation of the cervical spine, the scalenes, and the clavicle can be used to look for structural causes of TOS. A Tinel sign may be elicited over the supraclavicular fossa. A careful neurovascular examination should include strength testing of the muscles and […]

Subtrochanteric Fracture

Basics Description By definition, subtrochanteric hip fractures (or, simply, subtrochanteric fractures) extend into the region between the lesser trochanter and a point 5 cm distally. Classification: Multiple systems exist, but prognostically the most critical factor is fracture stability, which is based on the degrees of comminution of the medial and posteromedial cortex. The Russell […]

Shoulder/Proximal Humerus Fracture

Basics Description The proximal humerus consists of the articular surface of the shoulder joint and the attachments of the rotator cuff to the greater and lesser tuberosities. Most of the blood supply to the humeral head comes from the anterior humeral circumflex branch of the axillary artery. >90% of proximal humeral fractures result from […]

Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]

Shoulder Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description Bones: Glenohumeral joint: The humeral head articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula. Stabilized by the glenohumeral ligaments capsule and rotator cuff muscles The labrum of the glenoid deepens the joint and enhances stability. AC joint: The acromion process of the scapula articulates with the distal clavicle. Suspends the arm and […]

Rotator Cuff Injuries

Basics Description Comprises 4 musculotendinous structures (the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that: Compress the humeral head into the glenoid, allowing the larger muscle groups to function properly Provide muscular balance to the glenohumeral joint Injuries to the cuff can occur at any age, but injuries to people >60 years old are likely […]

Radial Head Fracture

Basics Description Radial head fractures: Occur in the proximal 2-3 cm of the radius Are intra-articular fractures (The radial head articulates with capitellum.) Classification : Type 1: Nondisplaced fractures Type 2: Partial head fractures Type 3: Complete head fractures Radial head fractures often are associated with other injuries to the elbow or the forearm. […]

Posterior Tibial Tendon Rupture

Basics Description PTT dysfunction or rupture is the most common cause of adult acquired flatfoot deformity. A working knowledge of the anatomy and function of the PTT in the normal foot is necessary to understand the pathophysiology that results from dysfunction. Origin: Posterior aspect of the tibia, the fibula, and the interosseous membrane Course: […]