Specialists

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Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Lisfranc Fracture-Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the TMT joints of the foot. Can occur at any age Often accompanied by fractures around the TMT joints Classification: Type A: Total incongruity of TMT joint Type B: Partial incongruity of TMT joint complex, either medial or lateral Type C: Divergent (1st metatarsal medial, 2nd-5th lateral) Epidemiology Incidence Lisfranc […]

Knee Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the knee is an orthopaedic emergency. The most common causes are motor vehicle accidents, followed by sports and falls from heights. Classification: Anterior Posterior Medial Lateral Rotary: Subclassified as anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, posterolateral General Prevention Seat belts and airbags are the best methods of prevention. Epidemiology Incidence Rare Associated Conditions […]

Intercondylar Elbow Fracture

Basics Description Intra-articular fracture of the distal humerus, which may occur with a supracondylar fracture Biomechanically and anatomically, the distal humerus forms a triangle composed of a medial column and a lateral column that support the articular surface of the trochlea. The trochlea articulates with the ulna. The capitellum is the part of the […]

Humeral Shaft Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the diaphysis (shaft) of the humerus Occur at all ages Classification: AO classification method Anatomic location: Proximal 1/3 of the shaft Medial 1/3 of the shaft Distal 1/3 of the shaft Fracture characteristics: Fracture pattern (transverse versus oblique versus comminuted) Fractures may be open or closed. Pathologic (secondary to underlying […]

Femoral Shaft Fracture in the Child

Basics Description Femoral shaft fractures are defined as those >5 cm below the lesser trochanter, but above the distal metaphyseal (wider) portion of the lower femur. The location usually is specified as: Proximal Midshaft Distal Although the femur usually requires a large amount of energy to fracture, fractures can occur with low amounts of […]

Platelet Rich Plasma Injection Grafts for Musculoskeletal Injuries: A Review

Abstract

In Europe and the United States, there is an increasing prevalence of the use of autologous blood products to facilitate healing in a variety of applications. Recently, we have learned more about specific growth factors, which play a crucial role in the healing process. With that knowledge there is abundant enthusiasm in the application […]