Specialists

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Soft-Tissue Tumors

Basics Description Soft-tissue tumors may occur in any area of the skeleton and in individuals of any age. They may comprise fibrous tissue or tissue originating from muscle, fat, vessels, or nerves. Reactive lesions also cause soft-tissue tumors. Benign tumors far outnumber malignant ones. Differentiating the malignant from the benign can be difficult. Staging: […]

Scoliosis

Basics Description Scoliosis is a 3D curvature of the spine, best appreciated on an AP radiograph and physical examination. Both thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine may be affected. It is defined as a curve >10°. Classification: Etiology: Idiopathic Congenital Neuromuscular Connective tissue Degenerative Location (of the apex or middle of the curve): […]

Posteromedial Bow of the Tibia

Basics Description Posteromedial bowing of the tibia is an angulation of the lower leg noticed at birth. The foot typically is in a calcaneovalgus position. The angulation of leg is secondary to a deformity in the tibia. In most children, the angle gradually corrects itself during growth. The limb-length discrepancy persists and increases proportionately […]

Lumbar Spine Anatomy and Examination

Basics Description The spine is a complex system composed of bony elements, articulations, ligaments, muscles, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves divided into anterior, middle, and posterior columns. The vertebral body, lamina, and the spinous process protect the spinal cord. The lumbar spine contains 5 vertebrae and 5 nerve roots. Most lumbar spines have a […]

Congenital Pseudarthrosis

Basics Description Congenital pseudarthrosis is a rare defect of the distal tibia (at the junction of the middle 1/3 and distal 1/3) in which the bone is cystic and bowed and eventually fractures. The bone is dysplastic from birth. The deformity often increases with age. The abnormality may not be noticed unless anterior bowing […]