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Rheumatoid Arthritis

Basics Description Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting synovial joints and extra-articular systems, including the skin, eyes, cardiovascular system, bronchopulmonary system, spleen, and nervous system. Epidemiology Incidence Affects 1% of the population   Prevalence Variable onset, but most frequently between the ages of 35 and 50 years Females are affected 2-3 …

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Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

Basics Description Shoulder pain with overhead activities is a common musculoskeletal complaint. Impingement syndrome: Inflammatory condition of the soft tissues of the subacromial space Most common cause of presentation for shoulder complaints to a physician’s office (>50% of all shoulder complaints) Represents a continuum, progressing from acute bursitis, to chronic bursitis, to partial-thickness tears of …

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Lumbar Disc Herniation

Basics Description Low back pain affects up to 85% of the population at some point in their lives. Low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in patients <50 years old. Herniation of a lumbar disc: 1 of the major causes of acute and chronic lower back pain May be associated with …

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Talus Fracture

Basics Description The talus, a small bone in the hindfoot: Articulates with the calcaneus and the remainder of the midfoot bones Supports the body’s weight and distributes the body’s forces to the foot Is critical to proper function of the foot Is covered (~60%) with articular cartilage Is vascularly supplied by vessels through a small …

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Orthopaedic Medications

Orthopaedic Medications in Singapore

For the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions and ailments, there are a variety of orthopaedic medications available to relieve oneself of pain. Orthopaedic physicians mostly prescribe three classes of drugs – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), corticosteroids and anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS). Approved by the FDA, these orthopaedic medications are safe. However, a prolonged use of these drugs …

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Reactive Arthritis

Basics Description Reactive arthritis (previously called Reiter syndrome) is a form of reactive, inflammatory arthritis classically associated with urogenital, ocular, mucocutaneous, and musculoskeletal involvement. This syndrome is categorized with the group of seronegative arthritides, along with AS, psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis. Diagnosis often is overlooked because of its variable presentation and the similarities with …

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Phalanx Fracture

Basics Description A phalanx fracture is a break in 1 or more phalanges in the fingers. Finger fractures are classified by: Which phalanx is involved Location within the phalanx Pattern Complexity Open or closed Stable or unstable to motion Epidemiology Fractures of the metacarpals and the phalanges are common. Occur among all ages Common causes …

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