Specialists

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Spondylolisthesis

Basics Description Spondylolisthesis is an abnormal AP translation of 2 vertebral bodies relative to each other. This translation is secondary to a defect in the pars interarticularis (spondylolysis) or the posterior ligamentous-bony restraints. Spondylolisthesis is classified by type (Table 1) and by the severity of the slip (Table 2). General Prevention No preventive measures […]

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Basics Description SCFE is a disorder of the hips of adolescents or preadolescents in which the femoral head is displaced relative to the rest of the femur. The femoral head remains in the acetabulum. Most notable features: The outward rotation of the lower femur and leg and a limp Classification: Stable versus unstable (1): […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]

Radial Head Fracture

Basics Description Radial head fractures: Occur in the proximal 2-3 cm of the radius Are intra-articular fractures (The radial head articulates with capitellum.) Classification : Type 1: Nondisplaced fractures Type 2: Partial head fractures Type 3: Complete head fractures Radial head fractures often are associated with other injuries to the elbow or the forearm. […]

Phalanx Fracture

Basics Description A phalanx fracture is a break in 1 or more phalanges in the fingers. Finger fractures are classified by: Which phalanx is involved Location within the phalanx Pattern Complexity Open or closed Stable or unstable to motion Epidemiology Fractures of the metacarpals and the phalanges are common. Occur among all ages Common […]

Lisfranc Fracture-Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocation of the TMT joints of the foot. Can occur at any age Often accompanied by fractures around the TMT joints Classification: Type A: Total incongruity of TMT joint Type B: Partial incongruity of TMT joint complex, either medial or lateral Type C: Divergent (1st metatarsal medial, 2nd-5th lateral) Epidemiology Incidence Lisfranc […]

Intertrochanteric Hip Fracture

Basics Description Fractures of the proximal femur located between the greater and lesser trochanters and external to the capsule of the hip joint The greater and lesser trochanters may be avulsed as separate fragments. Many classification systems have been developed that are unreliable in identifying fracture types, but in general, they are classified as […]

Hip Fracture in the Child

Basics Description Fracture of the femoral neck, in the intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric region Classification: Delbet system as popularized by Colonna: Type I Transphyseal separation (femoral head separates from neck through the growth plate) Can be nondisplaced (widened physis), displaced, or dislocated Least common type Occurs in young children Many patients have dislocation of the […]

Hip Dislocation

Basics Description Dislocations and fracture-dislocations of the hip are orthopaedic emergencies. Serious, high-energy injuries in which the femoral head becomes completely dislodged from the acetabulum A thorough examination must be performed to assess for other possible injuries. Up to 50% of patients suffer other fractures at the time of injury. Associated acetabular or femoral […]