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Anatomy

The glenohumeral joint is formed by a unique articulation between a larger and nearly spherical humeral head with a shallow and much smaller glenoid. Minimal bony constraints combined with a unique anatomical architecture and functional arrangements allow the shoulder joint to have the largest range of motion in the body.

Despite its minimally constrained […]

Imaging Evaluation

X-ray films are an integral part of the work up and necessary to gain additional information. The views that are the most valuable are anterior-posterior (AP) view, supraspinatous outlet view, and axillary lateral. A 15-degree cephalic view of the AC joint, and an AP view with humeral internal rotation can also be helpful.

It is […]

Shoulder Instability

Basics Description Because of the shoulder’s extensive ROM, it is prone to instability. The term encompasses a spectrum of disorders of varying degree, direction, and cause. Instability should be distinguished from laxity. Laxity is the symmetric translation of the humeral head over the surface of the glenoid without symptoms. Instability occurs when the degree […]

Shoulder Dislocation

Basics Description The shoulder joint has the greatest ROM of all joints in the body and, thus, is at high risk for dislocations. Shoulder joint stability depends on various dynamic and static anatomical restraints. Dynamic restraints include: Tendon of the long head of the biceps Scapular stabilizers Rotator cuff muscles and tendons Static restraints […]