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Glenohumeral arthrosis has been a well-described complication of various surgical procedures to correct shoulder instability. Over-tightening of the anterior structures, can result in stiffness, and drive the humeral head posteriorly, creating shear on the cartilage and early arthrosis.

Some patients paradoxically may have instability and stiffness. They feel unstable because of excessive laxity in […]

Cartilage Healing

It generally is agreed that intrinsic healing of cartilage lesions does not occur. There may be a response of the chondrocyte to injury, but this response does not result in cartilage repair.

The obvious example is seen in degenerative arthritis [degenerative joint disease (DJD) osteoarthrosis, and osteoarthritis (OA)], in which chondrocytes often form clones of […]

Heterotopic Ossification

Basics Description Pathologic bone formation as a consequence of direct trauma or central nervous system injuries Bone formed in heterotopic locations such as muscle, subcutaneous tissues, or nerves Most commonly occurs at the hip, elbow, and shoulder joints. Epidemiology Less common in children than in adults, and more common in males than in females […]