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Stress Fractures of the Foot

SYMPTOMS

There is increasing localised pain over a bony prominence, often with no direct preceding trauma. The start of symptoms can be acute. There is often a history of suddenly increased training intensity or jumping or running on hard surfaces. A number of famous footballers’ metatarsal stress fractures have figured in the media over the […]

Stress Fracture

Basics Description A stress (microscopic) fracture occurs when: Repetitive stresses are applied to a bone faster than it is able to remodel to withstand this challenge. As the stressing force continues, the bone gradually fatigues and eventually breaks. Remodeling occurs in response to the stress but does not happen quickly enough to prevent the […]

Osteoporosis

Basics Description Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and an increase in fracture risk. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density score 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean value for a young person of the same gender […]

Osteomyelitis

Basics Description Osteomyelitis is inflammation or infection of bone. Classification is most commonly based on the timing of onset: Acute: Most often from hematogenous spread: The most common organism in neonates is Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Streptococcus or Gram-negative organisms. In older infants and children, it usually is S. aureus. Subacute: Accounts for 1/3 […]

Hemophilia

Basics Description This disorder of clotting factor results in easy bleeding. Secondary effects may occur in any system (most importantly brain, joint, muscle, and nerve) secondary to bleeding. Depending on its severity, it usually is diagnosed in early childhood. Classification: Severe: <1% clotting factor activity Moderate: 1-5% clotting factor activity Mild: >5% clotting factor […]

Hemangioma

Basics Description This benign tumor of vascular origin usually affects the skeletal system, but it also may occur in the soft tissues. Found in all age groups, this tumor most commonly is diagnosed in the middle decades of life. Epidemiology Incidence This tumor is uncommon. Prevalence No substantial gender difference has been noted. Risk […]