Specialists

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Biceps Tendinitis

Biceps tendinitis has been partitioned into primary tendinitis versus secondary tendinitis. Primary tendinitis involves inflammation of the tendon within the bicipital groove. To be considered primary, no other pathological findings (such as impingement, bony abnormalities within the groove, or biceps subluxation) should be present. It is considered an uncommon condition and should be thought of […]

Anatomy and Pathophysiology

In the normal shoulder, the coordinated muscle tension within the rotator cuff compresses the humeral head, keeping it centered within the glenoid fossa. By coupling with the force of the deltoid, a fulcrum is created that allows strength through a wide arc of motion.

The overlying subacromial bursae reduces friction between the tendonous cuff and […]

Acromioclavicular Joint

The AC joint is a diarthrodial joint and the only articulation between the clavicle and scapula. Variable inclinations exist, with being nearly vertical to angled downward and medially accounting for up to 50 degrees. The AC joint has an incomplete fibrocartilagenous intra-articular disc, potentially predisposing it to degenerative changes.

Degenerative changes have been shown to […]

Imaging

Cervical spine and chest radiographs are useful to rule out the uncommon cervical rib, long transverse process of C7, abnormal clavicle fracture healing, cervical spondylolysis, narrowed intervertebral space, and osteophytes impinging on the neural foramina. Accessory ribs are found in approximately 0.27% of the general population and are more common in women (77%) .

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Facet Joint Syndrome

The joints between the vertebral arches, the intervertebral facet joints, are oriented in such a way that they reduce the rotation capability of the vertebrae. If there were no facet joints the disks would wear out more quickly as a result of rotatory movement in the spine. When the disks are affected by age-related degenerative […]

Posterior Elbow Injuries

Posterior tennis elbow

Posterior tennis elbow, also known as posterior olecranon impingement or hyperextension elbow injury, is associated with aggressive elbow extension during the follow-through phase. The olecranon can impinge on the posterior aspect of the humerus and cause problems, such as triceps tendinosis. Osteophytes can form on the olecranon by forced hyperextension of the […]

Types of Elbow Injury

Elbow injuries in adults

Elbow injuries can be grouped into those occurring in medial, lateral, posterior or anterior areas.

Medial injuries

Medial injuries include medial epicondylitis, injury to the common flexors (myositis or acute rupture), compression of the hypertrophied pronator teres by the overlying fascia, chronic elongation and/or rupture of the medial collateral ligament with […]

Hip Joint Osteoarthritis

SYMPTOMS

There is gradual onset of diffuse exercise-induced pain in the groin. The hip joint is usually stiff and more painful in the morning than in the afternoon and rotational movements are most difficult. In severe cases, there is pain during rest. There are periods of better and worse symptoms. Secondary muscular symptoms are […]

Anterior Impingement Syndrome

SYMPTOMS

There is a gradually increasing stiffness of the ankle and exercise-induced pain around the anterior part of the ankle joint, often after previous sprain.

AETIOLOGY

Impingement syndrome is not a diagnosis but a symptom and may be caused by repetitive trauma to the anterior ankle joint, for example from striking footballs, recurrent sprains causing […]

Shoulder/Glenohumeral Arthritis

Basics Description Progressive loss of glenohumeral joint space with thinning of articular cartilage, formation of osteophytes, and progressive deformity Epidemiology Females are more likely than males to have primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Patients >60 years old are more likely to have it than are younger patients. Incidence ~0.4% in the general population Can reach 4.6% […]