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Hallux Valgus

SYMPTOMS

Increasing stiffness, aching pain and typical deformation of MTP I without preceding trauma. Often the symptoms are bilateral. This condition is commonly presented by middle-aged recreational athletes or sedentary people, predominantly female, but it can occur in younger individuals.

AETIOLOGY

The aetiology is unclear but there is possibly a genetic predisposition to this disease, […]

Hallux Rigidus

SYMPTOMS

There is increasing stiffness and exercise-induced pain around MTP I without preceding trauma, usually affecting adult athletes. This condition can be mistaken for ‘turf toe’, which is common in young footballers.

AETIOLOGY

The aetiology is unclear but there is a possible genetic predisposition.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

There is decreased active and passive range […]

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Basics Description SCFE is a disorder of the hips of adolescents or preadolescents in which the femoral head is displaced relative to the rest of the femur. The femoral head remains in the acetabulum. Most notable features: The outward rotation of the lower femur and leg and a limp Classification: Stable versus unstable (1): […]

Skeletal Scintigraphy

Basics Description Skeletal scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging method for bone disease. Advantages: High sensitivity for early detection of disease Whole body survey Disadvantage: Limited specificity Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms Indications Whole body skeletal scintigraphy: Primary bone tumors Osteomyelitis Joint prosthesis pain Occult fractures Stress fractures and shin splints Spondylosis Reflex sympathetic dystrophy […]

Posteromedial Bow of the Tibia

Basics Description Posteromedial bowing of the tibia is an angulation of the lower leg noticed at birth. The foot typically is in a calcaneovalgus position. The angulation of leg is secondary to a deformity in the tibia. In most children, the angle gradually corrects itself during growth. The limb-length discrepancy persists and increases proportionately […]

Osteochondroma

Basics Description An osteochondroma is a common developmental abnormality of the peripheral growth plate that results in a lobulated outgrowth of cartilage and bone from the metaphysis. Appears as a cartilage-capped bony projection from the metaphysis of long bones Can occur in any bone that develops from enchondral ossification Most commonly occurs in: Long […]

Hip Avascular Necrosis

Basics Description AVN is osteonecrosis, or death of the bone. All major joints can be affected. In the pediatric population, this condition is called Legg-Calve-Perthes disease and, in general, has a better prognosis than osteonecrosis in the adult. AVN of the hip is osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Synonyms: Osteonecrosis; Aseptic necrosis; Chandler disease […]

Hip Arthritis

Basics Description Hip arthritis is caused by loss of the articular cartilage of the acetabulum and proximal femur. As the cartilage is lost, the subchondral bone of the proximal femur and the acetabulum rub, causing pain with ambulation, loss of motion, and disability. General Prevention Low-impact exercise (swimming, biking, walking) Activity modification Weight loss […]

Friedreich Ataxia

Basics Description Friedreich ataxia is an uncommon, heritable disorder causing progressive spinocerebellar degeneration. Scoliosis, ataxia, and foot deformities are the most common findings. Systems affected: Central nervous system; Heart; Skeleton Classification: No subclassifications are used in Friedreich ataxia. It is classified under the category spinocerebellar degeneration, and it is the most common example of […]

Elbow Arthritis

Basics Description The elbow can be affected by inflammatory and noninflammatory arthropathies. Regardless of the underlying pathologic process, elbow arthritis generally presents with pain on ROM and loading of the affected joint. Epidemiology Incidence Uncommon Primary osteoarthritis accounts for 1-2% of all elbow arthritis; the remainder are inflammatory or posttraumatic. Can occur in any […]