Specialists

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Spinal Stenosis

Basics Description Compression of neural elements secondary to osteoarthritic changes (bone spurs, hypertrophied ligamentum flavum, disc space narrowing) at intervertebral levels and facet joints Characterized by back and/or lower extremity pain, numbness, weakness, and possible bladder/bowel dysfunction. General Prevention No known preventive measures Epidemiology Symptoms develop during the 5th and 6th decades. No gender […]

Skeletal Scintigraphy

Basics Description Skeletal scintigraphy is a nuclear medicine imaging method for bone disease. Advantages: High sensitivity for early detection of disease Whole body survey Disadvantage: Limited specificity Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms Indications Whole body skeletal scintigraphy: Primary bone tumors Osteomyelitis Joint prosthesis pain Occult fractures Stress fractures and shin splints Spondylosis Reflex sympathetic dystrophy […]

Paget Disease

Basics Description First described by Sir James Paget in 1877 , Paget disease (osteitis deformans) is a bone disorder commonly seen in the geriatric population. As implied by the name osteitis deformans, the involved bone may be severely deformed and enlarged, features that suggest an inflammatory origin. A chronic and slowly progressive disease of […]

Osteosarcoma

Basics Description The most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adolescents May occur occasionally in older adults but is much less common than chondrosarcoma and MFH May occur within other lesions (secondary sarcoma) such as Paget disease, bone infarcts, and irradiated bone A highly malignant tumor with invasive local growth and […]

Osteoporosis

Basics Description Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and an increase in fracture risk. The World Health Organization defines osteoporosis as a bone mineral density score 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean value for a young person of the same gender […]

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

Basics Description MFH is an uncommon, malignant, primary mesenchymal tumor of soft tissue or bone that resembles fibrosarcoma. In primary MFH of bone, the long bones are affected most commonly. Classification: Several subtypes have been described, but typing has not been shown to have prognostic implications. General Prevention No preventive measures are known. Epidemiology […]

Hip Replacement

Basics Description Many forms of arthritis lead to destruction of the articular cartilage of the hip joint, resulting in pain and loss of function. End-stage arthritis can be treated with surgical replacement of the joint. Elderly patients may have a greater risk of cardiac complications and more associated medical problems than younger patients. Patients […]

Giant Cell Tumor

Basics Description A benign but often locally aggressive neoplasm, characterized by large numbers of uniformly distributed, osteoclastlike giant cells and a background population of plump, epithelioid-to-spindle mononuclear cells. The vast majority of these tumors are located near the articular end of a tubular bone; ~50% occur in the knee. Other frequently involved sites: Distal […]